Wednesday, March 6, 2019

Millennium Development Goal and Bangladesh

Report on 2012 millenary inducement culture (MDG) and Bangladesh The pull ahead of Bangladesh on MDG A penning submitted to the Department of political economy, AIUB, as a course requirement of Economic Geography, peg semester 2012 Prep ard & Submitted byTeam HISTORYNazmun,MdIstiakAlam, NusratKhan,Jahirul Islam Akhter, Sheikh TurashaShuvo,Shariar Al AminAshraf, Taskia Course teacherRAFIQ, FARHANAFaculty Department of Economics experience of submission 28 November 2012 American Inter depicted object University-Bangladesh (AIUB) 28 November 2012 RAFIQ, FARHANA Faculty Economics DepartmentAmerican International University Bangladesh. Subject Submission of Report Dear Madam, We select the delectation to submit this report entitled Mdg and distribute of bangladesh which has been prep ared in part-fulfillment of the requirements of the last Examination Economic Geography. We fetch discussed on our report to the highest degree MDGs and its make out in Bangladesh. We also have shown the worldwide progress of MDG. Fin wholly(a)y, we are sincerely g browseful to you for giving us this pleasant opportunity to mictu localize on this report. The spotless(prenominal) group contribution has led to the successful issue of this report.Despite our all assertable attempts, certain deficiencies may reside and we sincerely sorrow this. Best Regards, 1. Nazmun,MdIstiak ID11-19119-22. Alam, Nusrat ID 11-19192-23. Khan,Jahirul Islam ID 11-18219-14. Akhter, Sheikh Turasha ID 11-19261-25. Shuvo,Shariar Al Amin ID 11-18231-15. Ashraf, Taskia ID11-19115-2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, we would like to convey to our course instructor of this Economic Geography course RAFIQ, FARHANA for the valuable instruction and advice. She inspired us bullyly to study in this report. Her leadingness to motivate us contributed tremendously to our work.We also would like to thank her for her valuable time by helping us for this report. This re inquisition report woul d not have been possible with bug out the support of many good deal. Our thanks and appreciations go to our classmates for making the semester period truly enjoyable. And we would also like to thank our al capacityy for helping me carry by this massive task. Summary The main objective of this report is to discuss just about millennium teaching destructions and its Progress in Bangladesh. For making this report we have collected data from internet, books, teachers references.Our finding shows Achievement of the Millennium Development polishs lies at the core of UNDPs mandate, and is the focus of much of our work. Accordingly, UNDP and our partners results in the areas of governance, pauperism reduction, environment, energy and climate change, disaster management, all contribute in different ways to the accele balancen of MDG arrive atment. In particular, the Support to Monitoring PRS and MDGs in Bangladesh project supported MDG accele dimensionn in Bangladesh between 2006 an d 2011. This project will shortly be re red-hoted.It is expected that the report will help to issue about the MDGs as well as the situation of our sylvan of accomplishment. limit SectionPage Number * Introduction 06 * Discussion (a) MDG 07 (b) determinations and Targets . 07 (c) MDG and Bangladesh . 14 (d) Progress of Bangladesh 15 * Conclusions.. 29 * Bibliography 30 List of Figures Bar Chart (1) 11 * Bar Chart(2) 12 * Bar Chart (3) .. 13 Introduction The MDGs reflect a stack of actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 193 nations in 2002 base on the Millennium Declaration agreed in September 2000. Bangladesh has preserve impressive feats in pulling people out of poverty, ensuring that more children, girls and boys, do school, and have admittance to clean piddle. Considerable progress has been do in child survival rate. Bangladesh is among the 16 countries who have received UN recognition for creation on track to achieve MDG4 .There have been any(prenominal) modifyments to address the realms massive environmental challenges over the past decade as well. Out of the 52 MDG targets, Bangladesh is on track on 19 of them and 14 of them strike attention (2011 data). Although Bangladesh is on track to achieve the Net inventory target, the drop-out grade remain to high Enrolling the last 10% of the children, ensuring quality of cultivation for children who are already enrolled in schools, and promoting sexual activity equity in 3rd information, remain as major(ip) challenges. The maternal fatality rate rate ratio of Bangladesh at 194 has shown a major turnaround.Performance on this goal which was lagging is a major achievement. The threat of climate change can also diminish the rough earned beneficial impacts of twelvemonths of growth and discipline not just for the people in impoverished settlements along coastal belts and river banks, but for the entire nation. Achieving abundant and productive employment for all, including women and young people remains down target. The labor force participation rate is low at about 51. 7% and womens participation although improving, is much lower at 23%. It is passing unlikely that Bangladesh will be able to ensure employment for all by 2015.Yet an different challenge that Bangladesh faces is in addressing certain pockets of poverty that are lagging far behind with respect to the national averages and where the benefits of MDGs attainment need to be specifically seizeed. These areas include the urban slums, the hill tracts, coastal belts and new(prenominal) ecologically vulnerable areas. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight foreign growinggoals that were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.All 193 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve these goal s by the stratum 2015. The MDGs were developed out of the eight chapters of the Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000. There are eight goals with 21 targets, and a serial publication of measurable indicators for each target. Goal 1 end extreme poverty and hunger * Target 1A Halve the analogy of people animate on less than $1 a day * Target 1B Achieve sightly barter for Women, Men, and Young People * Target 1C Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Goal 2 Achieve universal first-string information Target 2A By 2015, all children can complete a full course of unproblematic schooling, girls and boys Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower women * Target 3A Eliminate gender disparity in primary and indirect education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015 Goal 4 lessen child death rate rates * Target 4A thin by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the low-five mortality rate Goal 5 Improve maternal health Target 5A cringe by three quarter s, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio * Target 5B Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health Goal 6 armed combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases * Target 6A contract halted by 2015 and begun to snarf the library paste of HIV/AIDS * Target 6B Achieve, by 2010, universal access to preaching for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it * Target 6C Have halted by 2015 and begun to come up the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Goal 7 go through environmental sustainability Target 7A Integrate the principles of sustainable exploitation into country policies and programs reverse loss of environmental resources * Target 7B Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a evidentiary reduction in the rate of loss * Target 7C Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the tribe without sustainable access to safe imbibing water and canonic sanitation (for more information see the entry on water supply) * Target 7D By 2020, to have achieved a signif icant emendment in the lives of at least degree centigrade million slum-dwellers Goal 8 Develop a orbicular partnership for development Target 8A Develop come along an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system * Target 8B Address the Special necessarily of the Least Developed Countries (LDC) * Target 8C Address the special of necessity of in arrive growth countries and small island developing States * Target 8D Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term * Target 8E In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies, bid access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries * Target 8F In co-operation with the orphic sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications Progress towards reaching the goals has been uneven. Some countries have achieved many of the goals, par t others are not on track to realize any.A UN conference in September 2010 reviewed progress to date and concluded with the adoption of a global action externalise to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date. There were also new commitments on womens and childrens health, and new initiatives in the worldwide battle against poverty, hunger and disease. From abutting page, we have shown some statistics about progress of MDG all over the world. definition Here is the parting of adjusted net enrolment ratio in primary education In case of the developing countries Enrolment ratio in primary education in 1990s was 82% opus in 2008 it was 89%. In case of the developed countries Enrolment ratio in primary education in 1990s was 97% while in 2008 it was 96%.In case of the world Enrolment ratio in primary education in 1990s was 84% while in 2008 it was 90%. Bar Chart (1) rendering This is the partage of people earning less than $1. 25 a day. In the year 1990 58% sub Sahara African are earning less than $1. 25 a day. & In year 2005 the percentage was only reduce by 7% Which show that the progress is not good. On the other hand, In the year 1990 60% of eastern Asian is earning less than $1. 25 a day. While in the year 2005 the percentage was reduce by 44%, which is very high. Bar Chart (2) Description This is the percentage of mortality under five years old per g-force In case of the developed countries in 1990s the number was 12 & In 2008 it was 6In case of the developing countries in 1990s the number was 100 & In 2008 it was 72 Here we found huge deference between the developed & developing countries. Bar Chart (3) MDG and Bangladesh The Government of Bangladesh is committed to achieve the MDGs within the given timeframe. The novelly approved Sixth Five course of instruction designing (2011-2015) titled Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty has laid out the operational details on the countrys endeavor to motility forward with a view to achieving the Vision 2021 of the Government. The Plan has integrated the Millennium Development Goals within the broader agenda of the economic and social targets.The Sixth Plan has adopted a holistic approach to reduce poverty and improve other social indicators, with special attention provided to remove the regional disparities in development. The beauty of implementing the 6th Plan is that in pursuit of achieving national development goals, the MDG will also be achieved as the terminal year of some(prenominal) the milest cardinal goals coincides. The recent progress report of MDGs in Bangladesh 2011, shows that Bangladesh has achieved remarkable progress in the areas of primary schooling, gender parity in primary and secondary level education, lowering the infant and under-five mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio, improving immunization coverage and reducing the incidence of communicable diseases. The recent data reveal that incidence of poverty has been declining at an annual rate of 2. 6 percent in Bangladesh during 1991-1992 to 2010. If this trend continues, the target of halving the population living under the poverty line would be achieved well before 2015. However, achievement of the hunger target might be difficult to attain callable to volatility of the commodity prices and the challenges of underemployment. Progress of MDGs in Bangladesh * Goal 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Bangladesh is well on track to achieving Goal 1 with poverty coming down to 31. 5 percent in 2010. Also, the average annual rate of poverty reduction has been above rate required to meet the 2015 target. The poverty gap ratio has also change magnitude dramatically. Current StatusTarget 1.A Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income isless than $1 a day. 1. 1 ratio of population below national upper poverty line, percent (38. 7 in 2008 bylinear extrapolation 41. 2 in 2009 by household self-assessment)Status on track1. 2 Poverty Ga p Ratio, percent (9 in 2005)Status on track1. 3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption (NA)Target 1. B Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, includingwomen and young people. 1. 5 Employment to population ratio, percent (58. 5 in 2006 and 59. 3 economically activein 2009)Status require attentionTarget 1. C Halve between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer fromhunger. 1. prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age (6-59 months), (45% asof 2009)Status take attention1. 9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption, (40%as of 2005)Status ineluctably attention * Goal 2 Achieve Universal Primary reading While a significant 95 percent has been achieved in foothold of primary school enrollment, dropout rates remain high and therefore primary school completion rate low. Progress has been made in giving literacy 58 percent in 2010 but additional effort is inevitable to reach the target. Current StatusTarget 2. A Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be ableto complete a full course of primary schooling2. Net readjustment Ratio in Primary EducationBenchmark 60. 5 in 1991Current spot 91. 9 (2008)Target 100Status on track2. 2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5Benchmark 43. 0 in 1991Current stance 54. 9 (2008)5Target 100Status unavoidably attention2. 3 Literacy rate of 15+yrs olds, women and men (%)Benchmark 36. 9 in 1991Current condition 58. 3 (2007)Target 100Status needs attention * Goal 3 Promote Gender compare & Empower Women Bangladesh has achieved gender parity in primary and secondary education together with being on track with respect to percentage of women assiduous in agriculture sector. Current StatusTarget 3.A Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by2005 and to all levels of education no later than 20153. 1a Ratio of girls to boys in primary educationBenchm ark 0. 83 in 1991Current term 1. 01 (2008)Target 1Status Achieved before 20153. 1b Ratio of girls to boys in secondary educationBenchmark 0. 52 in 1991Current positioning 1. 2 (2008)Target 1Status Achieved before 201573. 1c Ratio of women to men in tertiary educationBenchmark 0. 37 in 1991Current billet 0. 32 (2006)Target 1Status needs attention3. 2 Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sectorBenchmark 19. 1 in 1991Current post 24. 6 (2008)Target 50%Status needs attention3. 3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliamentBenchmark 12. in 1991Current military position 19 (2009)Target 33%Status needs attention * Goal 4 Reduce Child Mortality The country is on track with regard to achieving this goal. earthshaking strides have been made in all three indicators and if the trend sustains, the country will meet the 2015 target well ahead of schedule. Current StatusTarget 4A Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. 4. 1 Under five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)Benchmark 146 in 1991Current status 53. 8Target 48Status on track4. 2 child mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)Benchmark 92 in 1991Current status 41. 3Target 31Status on track4. 3 Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measlesBenchmark 54 in 1991Current status 82. Target 100Status on track * Goal 5 Improve agnatic Health This goal has been a major turnaround and is now truly a track to be achieved by 2015. Current StatusTarget 5. A Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortalityratio. 5. 1 Maternal mortality ratio (per 1,000 live births) fore year 1991 574Current status 348Target 143Status needs attention5. 2 Proportion of births attended by Skilled Health Personnel (percent)Base year 1991 5Current status 24Target 50Status needs attentionTarget 5. B Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health. 5. 3 Contraceptive prevalence rate (%)Base year 1991 40Current status 60Tar get 100Status needs attention5. Adolescent birth rate (per 1,000 women)Base year 1991 77Current status 60Target -Status needs attention5. 5A Antenatal care coverage (at least 1 visit) (%)Base year 1991 28Current status 60Target 100Status needs attention115. 5B Antenatal care coverage (4 or more visits) (%)Base year 1991 6Current status 21Target 100Status needs attention5. 6 Unmet need for family planning (%)Base year 1991 19Current status 17Target 7. 60Status needs attention * Goal 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases Bangladesh has made some progress in combating the spread of malaria with the number of prevalence dropping from 776. 9 cases per 100,000 in 2008 to 512. 6 in 2010. Current StatusTarget 6.A Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS6. 1 HIV prevalence among population venerable 15-24 yearsBase year 0. 005Current status 0. 319 (2007)Target HaltingStatus on track6. 2 preventive use at last high-risk sexBase yearCurrent status 44 -67%TargetStatus need attention6. 3 Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledgeof HIV/AIDSBase yearCurrent status 15. 8 (2006)TargetStatus need attentionTarget 6. C Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and othermajor diseases6. 6A Incidence of malaria per 100 000 populationBase year 776. 9 (2008)Current status 586. 0 (2009)Target 310. Status on track6. 6B conclusion rate associated with malaria per 100,000 populationBase year 1. 4 (2008)Current status 0. 4 (2009)Target 0. 6Status on track6. 7 Proportion of children under-5 sleeping under insecticide-treated nates netsBase year 81% (2008)Current status 81% (2009)Target 90%Status on track136. 8 Proportion of children under-5 with fever who are treated with appropriate antimalarialdrugsBase year 60% (2008)Current status 80% (2009)Target 90% (By 2015)Status on track6. 9A Prevalence of atomic number 65 per 100,000 populationBase year 639 (1990)Current status 412Target 320 (50% reduction)/HaltingStatus 36% reduction/on track6. B Death rate associated with tuberculosis per 100,000 populationBase year 76 (1990)Current status 50 (2008)Target 50% reductionStatus 35% reduction/on track6. 10a Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected under DOTSBase year 21% (1994)Current status 70% (2009)Target 70%Status achieved/on track6. 10b Proportion of tuberculosis cases cured under DOTSBase year 71% (1995)Current status 92%Target 85%Status achieved/on track * Goal 7 Ensure Environmental Sustainability While significant progress has been made in terms of access to safe drinking water and healthy latrines in urban areas, the same remains a challenge in rural areas.Also maintaining wet-lands and bio-diversity is still a challenge. Current Status7. 1 Proportion of land area covered by forestCurrent status 19. 2% (Tree density 10%),Target 20% (Tree density 70%)Status needs attention7. 2 CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)Current status 0. 30Status on track7. 3 Consu mption of ozone-depleting substances (metric tons per capita)Current status 127. 88Target 0,15Status on track7. 4 Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limitsCurrent status 54 inland fish species & 16 marine species are beStatus need attention7. 5 Proportion of total water resources usedCurrent status 6. 6% in 2000,Status needs attention7. Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protectedCurrent status 1. 78% terrestrial & 0. 47% marine areas protected (2010),Target 5%,Status needs attention7. 7 Proportion of species threatened with extinctionCurrent status 201 inland, 18 marine & 106 vascular plants are threatened,Target improvement of ecosystems for fortress of species compareto 2000 situation,Status needs attention7. 8 Proportion of population using an improved drinking water sourceCurrent status 86%Target 100%,Status needs attention7. 9 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facilityCurrent status 89%Target 100%,Status needs attention7. 0 Proporti on of urban population living in slumsCurrent status 7. 8 %,Status needs attention * Goal 8 Develop a Global Partnership for Development sharpness of telephone lines and internet, particularly cell phone usage, has increased to a great extent but youth employment rate is still low. As clearly identified during the recent MDGs needs assessment and costing exercise, Bangladesh needs more resources to achieve MDGs. Immediate efforts need to be undertaken by development partners to examine the gaps and renew efforts to support critical MDG-oriented sectors. At the same time, the dissymmetry between loans and grants should be addressed by increasing the share of grants in ODA.In Bangladesh there have been numbers of policies, strategies, and implementation programmers, activities and interactions and debates surrounding the MDGs. In item MDGs have emerged a way we are travelling through to the one goal of peace, prosperity and valetity. Conclusion Theatre for Humans believes the Mi llennium Development Goals are at the very heart of the stories to be portrayed in its inaugural production and will strive to bring these goals to the attention of as wide an audience as possible in order to notwithstanding the dialogue needed for change. Adopted by world leaders in the year 2000 and set to be achieved by 2015, the MDGs are both global and local, tailored by each country to suit specific development needs.They provide a framework for the entire international community to work together towards a common end making sure that human development reaches everyone, everywhere. If these goals are achieved, world poverty will be cut out in half, tens of millions of lives will be saved, and billions more people will have the opportunity to benefit from the global economy. The MDGs are evident in the national planning framework. The revised National Poverty Reduction Strategy makeup has adopted a holistic approach to reduce poverty and improve other social indicators to ac hieve the MDGs, with special attention to the lagging regions. overall Bangladeshs progress might be slow, but in some sector like child mortality, improvement of maternity health, primary education etc has the fast progress.So it is a positive sign that we can achieve the goals, might not in 2015 but in near future definitely. Bibliography * https//www. google. com/search? num=10&hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1366&bih=593&q=mdg&oq=mdg&gs_l=img. 3 1994. 2403. 0. 2934. 3. 3. 0. 0. 0. 0. 205. 276. 1j0j1. 2. 0 0. 0 1ac. 1. DQ5fVJymYv8 * https//www. google. com/search? num=10&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=593&q=mdg&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=iw&ei=SlGzUPjhNsTQrQfh5YCYCg * http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Millennium_Development_Goals * http//www. undp. org/content/undp/en/home/mdgoverview. hypertext mark-up language * https//www. google. com/hl=en&tbo=d&output=search&scl

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