Monday, September 30, 2019
The article written by Edward Pohlman in October of 1966 brought up interesting points in relation to psychologist and birth control. It provided both independent variables and dependent variables that helped to show why individuals decide on contraception, or decide not to use them. He pushed to show why psychologist havenÃ¢â¬â¢t done much research in the area of birth control and their related topics, by suggesting that non-psychologist are the researchers that boast interest in studying the topic because of potential overpopulation problems. I think the decision to treat independent and dependant variables about psychological effects of using birth control is relevant to all people that take part in intercourse and having children because these decisions are critical choices in life that decide whether future children will be able to thrive on our planet, and live without psychological damages from parental neglect. Some variables include, but are not limited to the number of children wanted, contraceptionÃ¢â¬â¢s, and measured personality. (Pohlman, Eugenics Quarterly.). Some psychological factors that were pointed out to be some major independent variables were total family size, motherÃ¢â¬â¢s age at first birth, duration of marriage, spacing between births, sex of the children, inability to have children, adoption and celibacy. (Polhman, Eugenics.). Ã¢â¬Å"Psychologist do not play key roles in whether or not countries engage in extensive use of birth control planning, or to control their population, rather private companies are relied upon to handle technical assistance and procedures.Ã¢â¬ (Journal of Social Issues.). This is the problem that needs to be addressed and accounted for; however, the author doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide evidence or notation of where, who, what, and how the study is taking place. He continues with, psychologists play an important role in contraception because they h ave the intelligence and Ã¢â¬Å"know-howÃ¢â¬ (Pohlman, Edwards.). to intervene with a patients and help the people decide if birth control is something that is an option or not. Once again the author is providing a statement rather than actual facts to lead on his arguments, but the argument is sound. Some studies that psychologist participated in were promoting the idea of contraception to both smaller families and that of larger families. The idea was to provide the idea that contraception wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily a problem and that they had to deal with, rather more of an option. The problem with this particular independent variable is that relationships with one culture could be completely different with relationships with other cultures. Population densities take psychological effects, so studies found that since the world population was a major concern then they would target high populated areas to conduct their research. These studies are important because of the food supply that would rapidly decline as the population increased. (Pohlman, Journal of Social Issues.). The author could have researched a graph and included it in his argument for a more frontal approach to help the reading see the truth in which he is attempting to provide. Psychologists found that the same psychological effects can be played in reverse when giving birth to a child. In a large probability sample of American wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s in 1960, 17% were willing to admit that their latest conception had not really been wanted by both spouses. (Whelpton,Cambell, &Patterson, 1966, Pp.235-239.). As a parent, you have responsibility to your child, but having a psychologist discuss the precautions involved both positive and negatives, can make you question ones desirability and how you feel about having another child or not. According to Edward Pohlman itÃ¢â¬â¢s more profitable for a psychologist to study the effects on psychological depen dent variables such as, contraception and birth planning procedures, births of circumstances in the family, and population characteristics. This is why psychologist wait to conduct their research as opposed to taking the study from the start. Studies have shown that that any psychological factors that could influence anyone in a given culture towards having children, or having more children would not show up for the testing. (The Psychology of Birth Planning.). Psychologist also found that social class or even religious preferences tend to play a key role in decision making time that can be psychological in its self. Ã¢â¬Å"Every form of contraception has psychological effects on the person using them sexually.Ã¢â¬ (Edward Pohlman.). The article didnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide any data on psychological effects sexually, but it can be justified through the research of sterilization, abortion, infanticide, and abstinence. (Whelpton, P. K., Campbell, A. A., & Patterson.). in Edwards research he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide examples. Another form of dependent variable that was acknowledged was the effects of guilt. Guilt has been found to be one of the biggest issues when regarding to religious beliefs, rationalization and other phenomena related instances. (The Psycology of Birth Planning). Once again Edward Pohlman doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide proof to justify his statements; which is disappointing. In conclusion, the author leaves the reader questioning his argument because of the lack of data that he is able to extract from psychological studies. In my opinion, his sources are valid sources; however, to complete his argument that psychologist havenÃ¢â¬â¢t done enough research in the area of birth control and related topics, he needs to dig deeper and find sources that can find a better way to link the psychological factors on birth control and psychologists studies. This will help him complete his argument that without contraception our planet will be doomed do to over population. I also think he needs to find more information on the experiment entirely in its self. The studies took place in small and large populated areas, ok? As the reader, I want detail as to how the study was conducted? How many participants were involved? He gives examples of problems that could potentially be a disadvantage for psychologist. Edward Pohlman was correct that not enough studies are being conducted by psychologist. His argument is sound and on point.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
What is motivation? Motivation defined as the internal force that drives a worker to action as well as the external factors that encourage that action (Locke & Latham, 2002). This report aims to analyze the intervieweeÃ¢â¬â¢s work motivation by using the job motivation theory. In this report, I interviewed a job incumbent. I will analyze the intervieweeÃ¢â¬â¢s work motivation by applying the job characteristics model, expectancy theory and reinforcement theory. In this case, my interviewee was a secondary school teacher in Hong Kong called Miss Tse. She had been a teacher for twenty years. She teaches Chinese and Chinese history. Besides teaching, she needs to prepare notes for the students and solving problems from the students. Why Miss Tse choose teacher as her vocation? She mentioned that she loves get along with the children. Also she adores the duties of a teacher. So being a teacher had become her ideal. Hackman and Oldham proposed the job characteristics model, which states that five core job characteristics influence (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback) three critical psychological states that in turn lead motivation (Hackman & Oldham, 1975). The first core characteristic is skill variety. It refers to the need of different skills for the success of job tasks. In the case of Miss Tse, her work had a high variety. She mentioned that after the education reform and the changing of the society, the workload for the teacher had become greater than the past. Besides the high workload of the education, Miss Tse needed to communicate with the student and their parents more. She said that nowadays people are more individualism especially the parents, they concern on the academic result more than the personal growth. So Miss Tse needed to put more time on it. As a result the job variety had become higher.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
About Shakespeare Essay Essay Topic: Literature , William Shakespeare Choose cite format: APA MLA Harvard Chicago ASA IEEE AMA Hamlet (634) , Claudius (325) , Ophelia (231) , Polonius (224) , Gertrude (208) , Laertes (186) , Horatio (118) , Fortinbras (82) Haven't found the essay you want? Get your custom sample essay for only $13.90/page ? Hamlet is ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s longest and most tragic play. It was first published in 1603, from a draft published several years earlier. The play begins two months after the death of King Hamlet of Denmark. The country is in a state of unrest. Young Fortinbras of Norway is preparing for war. After the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s death, his brother Claudius takes over the throne, and marries the widowed Queen Gertrude. Young Hamlet, the late kingÃ¢â¬â¢s son is incensed. He is told by the ghost of his father, that Claudius had poisoned him, to become the King of Denmark. Hamlet starts acting like a madman rousing concern. Polonius, an advisor to King Claudius is also worried by HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s strange Ã¢â¬Å"transformation. Ã¢â¬ The two, along with Queen Gertrude instruct Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood friends to spy on him. Hamlet is also increasingly hostile towards his love, Ophelia, PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢ daughter. Out of fear, the King orders Hamlet to be sent to England. King Claudius and Polonius both feel that Hamlet is dangerous. To ensure who the culprit was, Hamlet cleverly changes the lines in a play which is performed before the king and the queen. The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction convinces Hamlet that it was indeed he who poisoned his father. Alone, King Claudius reveals his crime, and confesses that he cannot escape divine judgment. After the play, Queen Gertrude scolds her son, but he instead scolds his mother for her wrong actions. Polonius is spying on the two, from behind a curtain. Hamlet hears Polonius, and kills him thinking he is Claudius. Anxious and scared, the king orders Hamlet to be sent to England, along with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. The King wants Hamlet killed as soon as he arrives in England. Hamlet had the spies Rosencrantz and Guildenstern put to death instead. Meanwhile, Young Fortinbras has brought his army to Denmark. Hamlet admires Young Fortinbras, for his courage to fight for honor. The death of Polonius has a profound impact on Ophelia, who in her depression and apathy kills herself by drowning. Laertes, PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢ son is enraged. The king tells him that it was Hamlet who murdered Polonius. The two decide to get rid of Hamlet, their common enemy. Claudius and Laertes arrange a duel, in which Laertes will fight Hamlet. To ensure HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Laertes poisons the tip of his sword. In the course of the duel, Laertes, Hamlet and the King are poisoned by the same sword. Queen Gertrude drinks a poisoned drink meant for Hamlet, and is killed. Dying, Hamlet tells Horatio to tell the world of his story and recommends Young Fortinbras the next king of Denmark. Hamlet Ã¢â¬â Prince of Denmark is a play that deals with the main subjects of honor, revenge and suicide. Hamlet is not our typical hero. Born in a royal family, he is a refined young man with noble attributes, but he has his weaknesses. After his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder, he is driven mad by anger when his mother marries Claudius. His love for Ophelia too turned into a strange confusion and mix of emotions. He distrusts all those around him, and starts dwelling in a melancholy state of mind. Even those he thought were his friends turn out to be spies sent by the king and queen. This also explain Hamlets Ã¢â¬Å"insanityÃ¢â¬ to a great extent. But even so, Hamlet is a disturbed individual. The way he treats Ophelia is obvious evidence. He is cruel to her, in spite of her efforts to try and understand him. He is also impulsive Ã¢â¬â he kills Polonius without thinking twice. Justice and revenge form major themes of the play, with Claudius, at the Head of a country, having killed his own brother, and Hamlet, avenging his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Suicide also forms an essential theme in the play. Ophelia kills herself by drowning. Hamlet too is prompted to kill himself. Ã¢â¬ But should he, or not; Ã¢â¬Å"To be or not to be, that is the question. Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare portrays all the characters with great ingenuity. He analyses human psyche, and how eventually, everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s destiny is controlled by fate. About Shakespeare, Hamlet Study Guide, http://absoluteshakespeare. com/guides/hamlet/hamlet. htm About Shakespeare. (2017, Mar 16).
Friday, September 27, 2019
What is intellectual culture and how do college students and teachers might promote it - Essay Example Culture on the other hand relates to the way of life of a certain group of individuals that possess similar characteristics in the manner they approach issues or behave. From the college concept, intellectual culture will therefore entail developing culture that ensures value as well as supporting an intellectual approach to problems while it may also imply adopting concepts as well as methods comprising of cultures agreeable from an intellectual perspective. College students and teachers might promote intellectual culture through overcoming stereotypes, advocating on team work and adhering to rules. Overcoming stereotypes certainly an essential factor to ensure achievement of intellectual culture. Teachers knowing the students and understanding their academic capabilities while students understand their teachers is essential. Overcoming these stereotypes is essential as all parties become well positioned without barriers to effective learning that as a result ensures creation of an intellectual culture where the students and teachers work towards a common goal of academic excellence. Other than overcoming stereotypes, enhancing team work is an essential factor in creating intellectual culture within a College institution. Creation of team work ensures innovation, developing of learning approaches and critical thinking. Working together as a team ensures team members develop their learning approaches relating to how they tackle questions relating to various questions as they learn from their peers (Ferrari 79). Innovation is also enhanced among team members owing to the fact that a team finds it easier to start a project as opposed to an individual. Since group work involves discussions, and analysis of projects through presenting ideas or brainstorming, critical thinking is ensured among the group members. While overcoming stereotypes and teamwork prove essential in ensuring promoting intellectual culture, adhering to rules
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Government & Business in Southeast Asia - Indonesia - Essay Example In maintaining a patrimonial leadership, Indonesia is loosing in certain ways. First, this kind of rule only catered for the elites. Although the government depended on views of its citizens to lead, it only considered the views of the elites as the rest were considered poor, socially backward, and politically passive (Crouch Web). This means that a large part of the society may suffer because of poor distribution of resources. Thus, a tag of war always existed between the elites and the rest of the society, but the government intervenes to make to keep the patrimonial leadership. Secondly, this kind of leadership affected IndonesiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy in various ways. Due to lack of openness of government procedures, corruption seeped and that saw a great number discriminated against because they had nothing to offer. It is important to note that there is lack of independent entity to keep an eye on this kind of leadership in Indonesia, which makes the government officials not accountable for their actions. Only a few of the investments can take place as public priorities are distorted. For instance, the businesses of the military group together with their family members continued to flourish as the current government helped them acquire contracts within the government. Thirdly, a tried coup in 1965 by PKI supporters caused them to loose their lives as the military government fought back. According to Crouch, patrimonial rituals were not adequate to contain conflict between competing interests (Crouch Web) Indonesia has reaped many benefits in maintaining its patrimonial leadership. First, in a patrimonial leadership, leaders lack coercive power to enforce their rule and retain political loyalty. This makes them issue their supporters with delicacies and goods to win their loyalty (Crouch Web). This is an advantage to Indonesia in that the leaders cannot enforce an authoritarian system whereby common person has no say. In addition, after Suharto
Relationship among Religion, Biology, and Science - Essay Example The paper is going to handle three main religions common in the world mainly Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. Christianity Different geographical regions have diverse cultures and beliefs which are characterized as conflicting, in harmony or even with little interaction. Religion and science explain the natural laws and the universe using different methodologies. Science is mainly based on empiricism, reasoning, and evidence. Empiricism is a philosophical view that knowledge is and should always be based on experience. Empiricism is taken to be a fundamental starting point of science inclusive of the invention in religion. Scientific empiricism has the assumption that the scientists are independent, impartial, and completely unrelated to the phenomena under investigation. In contrast, religion is based on sacredness, revelation, and faith. Religion is argued to support its facts by use of supernatural powers that are hard to investigate in that they are not part of nature. Religious investigators have difficulties in their investigations in that during the research; they defend their religion instead of explaining the problem under study. In the United States, acceptance of the scientific facts such as natural selection especially in the line of human beings has been influenced by religion so much showing that religion and sciences are in a fight. However, the National Academy of Sciences has documented some facts that proofs of evolution are in accordance and compatible with some religious groups (NAS, 2008). According to Archbishop Habgood John, science is descriptive while religion is prescriptive. Schilling and Coulson claimed that religion and science are related so much in that both revolve around a three-fold structure of experience, theoretical interpretation, and finally the practical application of the new idea. Coulson continued to argue that the fields of science just like religion brings it facts by creative imagination but not from mere figures (Brandt-Rauf, 2006).Ã Ã Ã
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
AP - Art History - Essay Example At that time, numerous scientific explanations were being discovered to explain phenomenal and to achieve this, philosophers and scientist fancied a unity spirit of humanity approach. (Porter 212). This piece of art was created by Albrecht DÃ ¼rer who was a German and he lived between 1471 and 1528. He produced this work in 1504 to represent Adam and Eve. In the picture, it is seen that Eve is convincing Adam to take the fruit given to her earlier by the snake, a forbidden fruit. That was where the fall of man originated. It is also seen that they are in a forest setup, which may be in Germany. Albrecht DÃ ¼rer is German born and in this piece of art, he never intended to emphasis on the Biblical story of Adam and Eve. In the picture there are other symbolic representations, which exemplify humanity perspective toward nature. They include phlegmatic for ox, phlegm, choleric for cat, yellow bile, and sanguine for rabbit. Further, this shows that the environmental setup of the artist upholds a cordial coexistence with animals, which also implicate Italian Renaissance (Porter 218). Arte di Calimala is the patron behind this piece of art produced by Ghiberti that is thought to have been carved around 1401-2 using bronze. This sculpture was produced by the patron for a competition on a religious story. The patron won the competition and was given a contract to make the door for both the North and East entrances. In the sculpture, the patron had interest in creating an illusion space for his relief. The objective of the competition was to provide a communicating piece of art on the old for adoption for the north entrance know as paradise. (Porter
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Profitable Brand for Hostess Brands Inc - Assignment Example The Hostess brand Inc. plunging into bankruptcy is due to the expensive business model that they use to operate. The company owns a large network of buildings, trucks; employees, Teamsters and the bakers union. After identifying the weakness of the Hostess Brands, Inc. Pepperidge farm Bread Company would restructure the business model and the brand would be profitable to the company. The shortcomings of Hostess Company are due to the expensive business model that it adopted. The model that Pepperidge farm Bread Company has will be able to sustain the brand. Buying the brand will not be a waste of resources but vale to the company. Pepperidge farm Bread Company business model does not allow the company to own all the assets that in the bread making the industry, but only the crucial part is handled with the company. The company, however, monitors all the proceedings that involve the sale of its products. The company has the right to terminate the contract that it might have entered in to with a distributor or any business party. The company would not distribute the brand once acquired, but use independent distributors to do the work. This would ensure that even if the workers paralyze the normal distribution, the distribution would still go on as usual. The company has set some guidelines for the awarding of contracts to distributors to protect its interests. The company uses the strategy of the distributor paying for the bread and earning from his sells. This ensures that the distributors work hard and sell the product. These will ensure that the distributors look for more customers to get more sells and earn more. These also reduce the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s losses compared to when it is the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s workers distributing the bread. The company has also reduced the cost of operation. The distributors are required to buy their own truck. This reduces the maintenance costs of the trucks. The strategy also ensures that only financially able distributors get the c ontracts to distribute the bread brand. Since the brand is popular within the population. The production would be in mass to satisfy the market. However, the number of bakeries required to achieve this will depend on factors as the route that the distributors are able to cover efficiently. The new establishment will only be set up in places that have a high market and the supply is insufficient to certify the market. Research is conducted before setting up new bakeries. In the meantime, Pepperidge farm Bread Company will use the bakeries accrued with the brand as it continues to study the market. The Pepperidge farm Bread Company will maintain the sole right to the formulae of making the bread and packaging. The company will also maintain the proprietorship rights but release as the distribution rights of the bread. The routes that the Pepperidge farm Bread Company own will go for bids. These routes will be sold to the highest able birder. The bidder will have to demonstrate that he can handle the route. The selling of the routes will help avoid unnecessary competition in the routes amongst the distributors. The act will also ensure that each distributor works hard in his designated route to achieve more sells.
Monday, September 23, 2019
When is it important for innovators to protect their intellectual property Compare and contrast three different approaches to the protection of intellectual pr - Essay Example Protection for intellectual property leads to a healthy competition and enhances value and quality of products, thereby promoting economic growth by means of technological development and enriched cultural advancement. It opens fresh trade avenues and enhance standard of living. The governments have to act and ensure implementation of intellectual property system to sustain businesses in a theft free environment to enable steady growth (Sebban, Guy 2005). Intellectual property is the name given to any new product or design or process and creative work of art or literature. Any invention or innovation involves dedicated effort on the part of an inventor who spends long hours in research and development. In addition, a significant amount of expenditure is also incurred towards development of new and innovative products or designs. If not protected and free copying is allowed, the inventor or innovator would soon get de-motivated, bringing stagnation to further development. Thus, protection of intellectual property assumes paramount importance. Intellectual property protection is essential to all businesses to exploit their new ideas and articles in the market and prevent piracy and theft by others. All art works also need to be credited for their creativity to enhance cultural growth (Sebban, Guy 2005). The protection methods can be broadly classified as Ã¢â¬Ëformal or institutionalÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËstrategicÃ¢â¬â¢. Formal protection methods include patent, trade secret, trade mark, and copyright, while strategic methods cover agreements of confidentiality, secrecy, lead and complexity (Iandiorio, Joseph S 1995). In the subsequent paragraphs, we would discuss, in detail, two formal methods, namely, patent and copyright, and one strategic method, namely, confidentiality agreement, bringing out differences, merits and demerits of each. A Ã¢â¬ËpatentÃ¢â¬â¢ is a grant from a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s government that provides security or protection to a new invention or innovation by an
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Best War Ever Essay The Causes of World War II History 1302 In the book The Best War Ever: America and World War II by Michael C.C. Adams, Adams discusses the misconceptions about world war two that America had and still has today. Through the title, one can assume that Americans came out of the five year war with a positive view. This was due to the way theatre and television portrayed it to the public, and like naÃ ¯ve children America ate it up. Television and other media didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want America to see the true horror that actually took place overseas, but what they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know was how mislead America was going to become. This essay will discuss the argument Adams creates in chapter 6 about how sugar coating the war for America, was in a sense best for them, but for small businesses, immigrants and teens it was a different story. Before World War II became the center of attention in America, people lived their everyday lives. Most were small business owners that were just trying to make a living. As the war went on overseas, Pearl Harbor was attacked, which led to the U.S. joining the war. Do to this sudden need to protect our country, America became Ã¢â¬Å"obsessedÃ¢â¬ and young men volunteered to fight for the country they loved. Everyone including women and children had this attitude of supporting the troops and doing everything they could to help out, by women working jobs in factories that were originally created for men. As these factories like Ford, Coca-Cola, and WrigleyÃ¢â¬â¢s grew, Ã¢â¬Å"World War II undermined the world of the small producer in business and agriculture, completing the triumph of large corporationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (The Best War Ever: America and World War II, 1994)1. Small businesses closing down wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only cause of America joining the war but also, families losing their homes, farms, towns, and well basically their lives. These people had to move to bigger cities where factories that were being recognized, due to the war, were the o nly jobs available. While factories grew, violence towards immigrants grew as well. Due to Pearl Harbor being attacked by the Japanese, Japanese-Americans were seen as a threat and removed from their homes and put into detention centers. Ã¢â¬Å"MoreÃ than two-thirds of the Japanese who were interned in the spring of 1942 were citizens of the United States.Ã¢â¬ (Japanese Relocation Centers: During World War II, nearly 120,000 Japanese Americans were under lock and key, 2007)2. President Roosevelt felt that they were a threat to America and that anyone of them could be a spy. African-Americans were facing hard times as well, though racism was still going strong, many African-Americans were being attacked and miss treated because of mixed work environments as Adams states in his book (1994) Ã¢â¬Å"A white man in a wildcat strike at a Packard plant said Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢d rather see Hitler and Hirohito win the war than work beside a nigger on the assembly line.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ 3 Wives of African-American men in the army were also treated as lower class while the American women would get preferred treatment. Another race that was targeted were American-born Hispanics. Teen Hispanics began to form gangs and Ã¢â¬Å"challeng[e] the traditional restraints of their behaviorÃ¢â¬ . They did this by wearing zoot Suits. Because of this new fashion trend amongst Hispanics, military men began to harass and ended up creating a riot known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Zoot Suit RiotÃ¢â¬ . In this riot military and Hispanic men attacked each other but only the Hispanic teens got arrested for the violence. As immigrants were mistreated, young American teens were feeling a sense of freedom, this was due to the lack of parental control. Ã¢â¬Å"More girls got pregnant. And the venereal disease rate rose : between 194 and 1944, New York CityÃ¢â¬â¢s VD rate among girls aged fifteen to eighteen years old increased 204 percent.Ã¢â¬ (The Best War Ever: America and World War II, 1994)4. Teens were getting into trouble cutting school and joining gangs. It was hard for schools to maintain a strong education among the youth and so a decline in intellectual quality began in young Americans. Media also had a small part to play in this lack of education. Mass entertainment was trying to win over the youth through T.V. and movies and because of this the armed services saw that students in this generation werenÃ¢â¬â¢t as prepared as generations before them, they lacked skills learned in high school. But one reason that as a main factor were the number of jobs that were available. Teens were able to get a job as young as thirteen years old, even though the job wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t helping out the war, money made the youth feel free like they could do anything they wanted, which they did. In conclusion, World War II in a sense was the best war ever but for small businesses, immigrants and teens, it was a war that ended up changing tradition into trends andÃ violence. Americans w ere blinded and lied to and through this it brought grave consequences . Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ it is the danger of arrogance and hubris Ã¢â¬â that is, the danger of going to war because a nations leaders are convinced of their own righteousness, or have persuaded themselves and the public that a foreign country should be attacked because its government or society is not merely alien, hostile or threatening, but evil.(The Good War Myth of World War Two, 2008)5. Bibliography Michael C. C. Adams, The Best War Ever: America and world War II (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1994) Japanese Relocation Centers: During World War II, nearly 120,000 Japanese Americans were under lock and key, 2007 http://www.infoplease.com/spot/internment1.html The Good War Myth of World War Two, May 24, 2008 http://www.ihr.org/news/weber_ww2_may08.html
Friday, September 20, 2019
Analysing The Political System In Ukraine Politics Essay Before mentioning about the presidents and presidential elections, the political system of the Ukraine is important to analyze its political transition. With its independence, Ukraine had some difficult task which would be solved in short time. A new political system had to be built. New system of national security and defense had to be created. With its Constitution, the general foundations of the political system are defined. Ukraine is an independent, sovereign, democratic and social and jural state in accordance with its organic law. The state power is divided into legislative, executive and judicial branches. According to Constitution, the main responsibility of the state is to establish and promote human rights and freedoms. Ukraine is a unitary state, in which its territory is integral and inviolable. The state has a single citizenship. (http://www.ukraine-arabia.ae/ukraine/politics/president/) As we look into the President of the Ukraine, this post is designated to be Head of State and a guarantor of national sovereignty, territorial integrity and adherence to the Constitution. President is elected by the citizens of the state on the basis of direct universal suffrage. The term of presidential office is five years. In order to be elected as President there are obligations. One of them is living in Ukraine for ten years before the elections, the other is being citizens.(http://www.ukraine-arabia.ae/ukraine/politics/president/) The only legislative body of Ukraine is the Parliament which is called the Verkhovna Rada. Citizens elect the deputies of Ukraine via direct universal suffrage through secret vote. The parliamentary election system is mixed with majority and proportional. 450 deputies are elected 225 of them are elected at single-mandate constituencies in terms of relative majority, and another 225 are elected proportionally at multi-mandate national constituency from the list of candidates who comes from the political parties. Constitution and laws of Ukraine establish the powers of the peoples deputies. They can unite themselves into factions with more than 25 members. These deputy groups are formed on a party and non-party basis. Then, the Cabinet of Ministers which is the supreme executive authority of Ukraine comes. Presidential orders, laws of Ukraine and the Constitution are the legal basis for its actions. The Government is responsible to the President and it is controlled by the Verkhovna Rada. This dependency leads to presidential appointment of a Prime minister with parliamentary consent. Prime Ministers authorities may be suspended and discharged by the President. Furthermore, Members of Cabinet of Ministers are discharged and appointed by President. When we look at the judicial authority system, there are Constitutional Court and Courts of General Jurisdiction. Furthermore, the supreme authority in judiciary is Supreme Court of Ukraine. The system of courts of general jurisdiction is based on the principles of territorial and special jurisdiction. The Constitutional Court of Ukraine is a separate entity and is independent from the Courts of General Jurisdiction. The activities of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine promote constitutional control in all spheres, stabilization and strengthening of constitutional order, the establishment of principle of primacy of law and the supreme legal force of the Constitution, and the promotion of constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens. Ukrainians had to take a program of state and nation building simultaneously. In the process of state building, Ukrainian policy was shaped with theÃ desireÃ toÃ guarantee itsÃ independence. It can be said that Ukrainian independence was accompanied with the qualifications of quasi-state and quasi-nation as a part of the Soviet heritage. Policy of Ukraine since 1991- 1992 until the 2004- 2005 was based on the process of state and nation building. Because of locked within the Soviet borders, Ukraine has isolated from the other world. All the interactions with the entire world were conducted by Moscow, that is the reason why Ukrainian authorities had no experience in cooperation with other states and independent administration of the state. (http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/3/6/1/1/8/pages361183/p361183-20.php) E.2.Presidents of Ukraine While examining the political transition of the Ukraine, it is also necessary to deal with the presidents and elections. After the independence from Soviet in 1991, in Ukraine there held 5 presidential elections in 1991, 1994, 1999 and 2004 and 2010, five parliamentary elections in 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2007. The Ukrainian Constitution which was adopted in 1996 and was amended in 2004, stipulates a de-facto dual executive that is dependent on both the president and the parliamentary majority. (Oleksandr Sushko and Olena Prystayko) There held the first presidential election on 1st December 1991. Leonid Kravchuk won the elections with the 61,59 percent of the votes in the first round and became the state President. He showed a degree of political continuity from the Soviet period. He failed in understanding the need for economic reform. Consequently, because of not implementing the reforms in which power was divided between the communists and the opposition, the result became a hybrid regime. (Karpyk, Tamila,8) As it was stated before, the first years of independence was dealing with nationÃ buildingÃ andÃ politicalÃ survival.Ã The appearance and activities of Rukh (the Peoples Movement of Ukraine) which is a new Democratic Party was important for preservation of national identity among the masses. VyacheslavÃ ChornovilÃ was the leader of the Democratic Party and he had significant characteristics on the spirit of nationalism in Ukraine. In these circumstances, changing into a nation-builder and being a mediator between the nationalist West and the Russified Eastern part of the country was not difficult for the first President Leonid Kravchuk who was former Second Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine. However, it was not an easy task. Before his office term ended, he had to call an early election because of the strike of the coal miners on 7th July 1993. (http://www.kmu.gov.ua/control/en/publish/article?art_id=72956cat_id=32588) With the decision of referendum, the early election was held on 26th June1994. Leonid Kravchuk and Leonid Kuchma were among the candidates of this election. In the first round, none of the candidates gained over 50 percent. Leonid Kravchuk got 38,36 percent and Leonid Kuchma got 31,17 percent of the votes. In the second round which was held on 10th July 1994, while the current head of the state received the 45,06, Leonid Kuchma was elected as Ukranian second Head of State with the 52,15 percent. (http://www.turksam.org/tr/a1898.html) It was surprise for Leonid Kravchuk to lose to Leonid Kuchma in the early elections. Leonid Kuchma was the former manager of Ukraines biggest armaments factory. On coming to power, Kuchma devolved greater power to the regions to decide linguistic and national questions. In his election campaign, anti-nationalist sentiment was aired by the Kuchma. (Kuzio, 214) However, this more liberal policy has squarely contradicted his desire for national consolidation and thwarted attempts to make policy implementation by the center in the periphery more efficient and effective. His first year in power led to financial stabilization. However, he could not continue the reform process and that led to small group in power becoming richer and the majority of the people had to find another means for survival. In 1999, during the Office term of Kuchma, The Committee to Protect Journalists stated Ukraine for its restrictions over independent media. The image of Ukraine was influenced in negative way bec ause of disappearance of opposition journalist. (Karpyk, Tamila,20) Kuchma has intimate relations with Putin. His administration can be seen as soft authoritarianism. Corruption, suppression of the media and weakening of the civil society were activities during the period of Leonid Kuchma. He aspired to construct a system of managed democracy which is formal democratic practices but informal control of all political institutions similar to Putins model of government in Russia but he never had such kind of success. Ukraines three largest oligarchic group did back Kuchma and wielded their media and financial resources. (McFaul,50-51) However, Kuchma did not control the rents generated from oil and gas sales that could have been used to purchase the loyalty of societal challengers. Kuchmas regime did not control or own major segments of the Ukrainian economy. The third election was held on 31st October 1999, Leonid Kuchma also took part in this election. There were 13 candidates but none of them got the majority of the votes. Ukrainian Communist Party leader Petro Simonenko and Leonid Kuchma competed in the second round. The former President was re-elected for a second term by taking 56,25 percent of the votes. In 2000, Viktor Yuschenko became Prime Minister of Kuchma. In economic domain, the citizens became hopeful with this change. Especially encouraging privatization, comprehensive reform programs and attempts for prevention of corruption enabled Yuschenko to have support from Ukrainians. As a consequence, he automatically became opponent to Kuchma and he was dismissed from his post. In 2000, a former socialist and oligarch leader released a video record which contains Leonid Kuchmas illegal orders. With this event, a scandal broke out and it brought a different approach to Ukrainian politics. In the parliamentary elections, Yuschenkos bloc got 112 chairs. However Kuchmas party got 104 chairs and it became sign for the upcoming elections for President. (SarÃâÃ ±kaya, p.3) Kuchma has tried to squelch opposition voices. However, his jailing of former Energy Minister Yuliya Tymoshenko, his dismissal of Prime Minister Yuschenko and his apparent collusion in the murder of journalist Georgy Gongadze further weakened the state and created more opposition. (McFaul, p.54) As a final impression on Kuchmas term, he did not aspire to construct full blown autocracy. He was prepared to transgress democratic rules to prevent the opposition from coming to power and he also wanted to maintain the appearance of democracy. The fourth Presidential elections were really struggling and it led to the Orange Revolution which will be explained in the following section. The election held on 31st October 2004 had 26 candidates. Two of the candidates were Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych backed by Russia and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko supported by the West. The first round was really competitive and in the second round the percentage of the votes of Yanukovych and Yushchenko were close to each other. With the announcement of the international electoral watchdogs about defraud on the elections resulted in the mass demonstrations of the population. Ukrainian High Court explained that the results were not valid. As the new election was held, Yushchenko instead of Yanukovych got the Presidency with the help of the Orange Revolution. Although Yanukovych did not win the election, it was seen that his and Russias political influence power in Ukraine was very strong. (http://www.turks am.org/tr/a1898.html) When Yushchenko first came to power, Ukraines Orange government seemed like it could meet the popular demands for radical political reform and immediate integration into Europe. Yushchenko and his Prime Minister Tymoshenko showed their incompatibility while working. They criticized each other openly. The Ukrainian political system became more dysfunctional. (Motyl, Alexander, 4) There is also an important and positive improvement. During Yuschchenkos term Ukraine was upgraded to FREE from Partly Free by Freedom House. He failed to understand the need to deal with Ukraines past or how to integrate Ukraine and follow through on pursuing criminal charges against the elites who had murdered journalists, abused their positions of power through massive corruption and theft of state property, and organized mass election fraud. (Kuzio, 217) On the other hand, he actively favored his ethnic Ukrainian base by promoting the Ukrainian language, culture, and identity in schools, government, and the media. With these actions, he alienated many of the ethnic Russians and Russian speaking Ukrainians in the countrys east and south. (Motyl, Alexander, 3) On 17 January 2010, 18 candidates competed in the elections. Current President Yushchenko was also one of the participants. (http://www.turksam.org/tr/a1898.html) In February 2010, Viktor Yanukovych made a remarkable political comeback. It was surprising that Orange Revolution was conducted against Yanukovychs Presidency and now the Ukrainians elected him voluntarily. The economic conditions of Ukraine could be explanation for this situation. In 2009, the countrys GDP fell by 15 percent. People were frustrated and they were willing to support anyone who could fix the economic conditions. And Tymoshenko was seen as guilty and Yanukovych became the winner.At the start of his presidency, Yanukovych laid out his foreign policy priorities: restoring Ukraines close ties with Russia, European integration and building relationships with strategic partners such as the United States. By playing to these priorities and, at the same time, pursuing their own interests in the region, Russia, the European Union, and the United States can help stabilize the Yanukovych presidency and Ukraine.(Motyl,Alexander, 2) Yanukovych claimed that he learned from his mist akes in the past. However, he had already done some mistakes. He redefined democracy as political order. He does not advocate Ukrainian heritage contrary to his opponent Yushchenko. He appointed Dmytro Tabachnyk for Ministery of Education and Science. He was not a good choice because he openly declares his anti-Ukrainian views. He also claims that ethnic Ukrainians in the west of Ukraine are too Westernized to be genuine Ukrainians. His assault on the Ukrainian identity resulted in demonstrations and protests which were directed at Yanukovych and his minister. (Motyl,Alexander, 4) As a result of Yanukovychs centralized and anti-Ukrainian regime, Ukraine does not reach national consensus on the political and economic direction of country. He is not expected to be authoritarian because of not having strong coercive apparatus as Putin but his regime is seen as return to Kuchmism. There created strong opposition to him and Ukraines first President Kravchuk is among them. He criticized lawlessness, permissiveness, use of force and corruption which are done by the team of Yanukovych. It is believed that if he continues to act like this, he can provoke a second Orange Revolution. Lacking the ability, capacity, and will to change the system, Yanukovych will probably try to enhance his regimes legitimacy. However, its Party of Region is not supported by population in Kiev and no reform is expected during his term because of gathering Kuchmas incompetent ministers in his team. Furthermore, the lower natural gas price that Yanukovych negotiated with Russia will bring imm ediate benefits to the oligarchs. Lower gas prices will allow them to keep the costs of their products low and globally competitive without forcing them to modernize or become more efficient. Even if the people welcomes lower gas prices at first Yanukovychs regime is expected to be more corrupt. (Kuzio, 214) After evaluating Presidents of Ukraine, the citizens ideas on democracy are worthy to examine. According to survey which is conducted in 2010, the preference for democracy is highest in Western Ukraine, while apathy toward the type of governing system is highest in Eastern and Southern Ukraine. More Ukrainians do not view Ukraine as a democracy than those who do. Only 25 percent of Ukrainians believe that Ukraine is a democracy compared to 41 percent who do not believe it is a democracy . E.3. The Orange Revolution From over two decades, Ukraine has been facing with a most difficult transition from its authoritarian past. On the way to democratization, it has experienced economic collapse, over lasting constitution making period, border disputes with its neighbors, severe discontinuities and a revolution.(Bohdan Harasymiw, 2002) The fall 2004 presidential election was one of the pivotal movements in the history of Ukraine. The current president Leonid Kuchma and Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych who was chosen successor of Kuchma deployed state resources, national media, and private funding from both Ukrainians and Russians to win against Viktor Yushchenko. When this effort was not enough, the government of Kuchma added votes in the second round for Yanukovych. As a response, Yushchenko called his supporters to come to Independence Square. The reason for this call is to protest this fraud in the election. Thousands of people came together in Kiev and stayed there until Supreme Court decided to cancel the second round results. (McFaul, 49) As we evaluate the Orange Revolution, it is understood that domestic factors accounted for most of the drama of this event.but external factors played direct role in constraining some dimensions of autocratic power. It also enhanced some dimensions of the oppositions power. However, Ukrainian democracy did not consolidate after the Revolution. Even if the Ukrainian democracy go back towards autocracy over the long run, this dramatic event is still seen as a democratic breakthrough in this decade.(McFaul, 48) With the Orange Revolution, it was seen that in Ukraine there is a struggle for between a semi-autocratic regime and a democratic opposition. Although there were improvements towards liberal democracy but not guaranteed. Institutional changes remain modest. 5 years after this movement, election of Yanukovych can be surprising and made the Orange Revolution waste of time. It has just postponed his Presidency. F.3.Ukraine-Turkey Relations: Turkey and Ukraine are neighbors on the Black Sea. When we look at the general situation between these two countries it can be said that it is good but not sufficient compared to their current potential. Especially in the issue of security in Black Sea, Ukraine has great importance for Turkey. Furthermore, its location on the energy lines, being one of the significant Black Sea countries, the historical ties with Crimea region and nearly 265000 Crimean Turks living in Crimea makes their relations substantial and sensitive. (http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-ukrayna-ekonomik-iliskileri.tr.mfa) As it is all known Ukraine has importance on the international relations with its strategic position. Ukraine sees Turkey as a key country for exit for Middle East and Mediterranean Sea. Ukraines foreign policy in its South axis aims to improve relations with Turkey. For Turkey, Ukraine is a buffer zone in order to prevent Russians to reach Black Sea. Turkey also attaches importance to Ukraine in terms of the stability of the region and strives to further develop its bilateral relations with Ukraine in every field especially economic and trade. (http://www.turksam.org/tr/a1512.html) Turkey is one of the first countries which recognized the Ukrainian Independence. Because of the discontinuity of the political relations, economic and the trade relations moved ahead of them. The Protocol on the establishment of the diplomatic relations between Turkey and Ukraine was signed on February 3, 1992. The legal framework which regulates the relations and cooperation between these two countries is almost complete after the signing of several agreements and protocols in political, military, economic, cultural, educational and intelligence related fields. (http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-ukrayna-ekonomik-iliskileri.tr.mfa) In 1994, Trade Economic Cooperation Agreement entered into force. There has been no serious political problem and there is an increase on the economic dynamic. There is an unbalanced situation of trade. Although Turkey imports more, its exports to Ukraine remains very low. 70 percent of Ukraines exports to Turkey is composed of iron, steel and the other mine products. There has been an increase of the Turkeys exportations on coal, organic and inorganic chemical substances, wood, aluminum, paper, plaster, stone and cement from 2007.Ã Turkeys investment in Ukraine is towards 135 million US dollars. There are over 500 enterprises. Another part of the relationship between these two countries is composed of Black Sea Economic Cooperation which both are the members. (http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkiye-ukrayna-ekonomik-iliskileri.tr.mfa) Ã Moreover, Turkey and Ukraine support each other in international organizations such as UN, CoE, and OSCE. Military relations are conducted both on bilate ral basis and within the framework of NATO-Ukraine Commission, BLACKSEAFOR and Operation Black Sea Harmony.(http://www.mfa.gov.tr/turkey_s-political-relations-with-ukraine.en.mfa) In 2003, Turkey declared Ukraine as privileged State status so Ukraine became privileged in Turkeys foreign policy. There have been several negotiations of the Foreign and Prime Ministers of both countries. In January 2007, Prime Minister Yanukovich visited Turkey and Operation Black Sea Harmony was signed. G.Conclusion In conclusion, after evaluating the Ukraines triple transition period, we have reached some important points. Although there have been some attempts to fully implement democracy, there are some obstacles. At first glance, the problems seem to be resulted from its communist past and Russian influence. Ukraine does not fully integrate as Ukrainian society. The problematic national transition of Ukraine can be traced back to this period. Seperatist minority groups, ethnic Russians and Crimean Tatars, keep Ukraine deal with its internal problems rather than economic ones. Economic crises which resulted from the price of gas fluctuations led to frustration within the country. Another obstacle that Ukraine faces with is its dependency on Russia in terms of energy. If it does not overcome this struggle, it seems to restrict Ukraines regional power. However, explaining Ukrainian internal conflicts only with the Russia based reasons would be wrong. Russia is extremely influential factor but we should not underestimate the other factors. In Ukraine, there are not only two cleavages that split the country. Ukrainians are divided also among themselves. It is clear that Ukrainian part and Russified part in Ukraine exist and surprisingly there was no civil war because there is no clear distinction between these counterparts. One of the most important sign for democracy is civil society and in Ukraine it can be seen as the strongest among the other Post-Communist states though it is not in Western standards. This led to the Orange Revolution that increased the political competition however; it could not succeed in long term reforms. Political instabilities and crisis environment became continuous in which Yanukovychs pro-Russian attitudes and Yushchenkos Ukrainian nationalism competed. Besides Ukrainian society chose best of the worst option because of the high level of corruption. As a matter of fact that in the first place Ukraine should focus on the problem of high level of corruption as the society expected to do so. The reason hidden behind societys choice for Yanukovych is his claims on economic solutions rather than his political views. After all, the analytical outcomes show that Ukraine does not fully achieve a consolidated democracy. Although civil society and independent media paint a promising Picture, it has more things to do in order to reach the standards of Western democracies. Especially, the deficiency in the reforms on the political institutions should be reconsidered. Nevertheless, Ukraine succeeded sufficient triple transition, coming after the Baltic States, when we compared it to the remaining post-Soviet countries like the Caucasus and the Central Asia.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
We are born into this world with the realization that life is hard and that life is like a box of chocolates and it is hard to take it at face value. The majority of our time is spent trying to answer an endless stream of questions only to find the answers to be a complex path of even more questions. This film tells the story of Harold, a twenty year old lost in life and haunted by answerless questions. Harold is infatuated with death until he meets a good role model in Maude, an eighty year old woman that is obsessed with life and its avails. However, Maude does not answer all of HaroldÃ¢â¬â¢s questions but she leads him to realize that there is a light at the end of everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s tunnel if you pursue it to utmost extremes by being whatever you want to be. Nevertheless, they are a highly unlikely match but they obviously help each other in many ways in the film. Maude introduces Harold to the circle of life and liberates him from the self-imposed prison and loveless life he has endured since he was born. Harold was born an only child who was raised by a single mom. His mom seeks control of all aspects of his life and she shows virtually no affection to him at all. She wants him to fit in with society and abide by the common norms in society. She gives him no chance to think for himself as she speaks for him all the time (filling out the dating form, talking for him when his dates came to visit him). She serves as a static nuisance to remind Harold of his past more than anything els...
Hamartia in Oedipus the King According to Aristotle, the tragic hero is impeded by a distinguishable characteristic or character trait which leads to his ultimate demise. This trait is known as hamartia, or the "tragic flaw." This characteristic is said to not only lead to the hero's demise but may also enable the reader to sympathize with the character. So it follows that in Oedipus the King, a Greek tragedy, the tragic hero Oedipus should have some sort of flaw. However, after close examination of the text, no distinguishable "flaw" is revealed. Although Oedipus appears to have many "flaws" on the surface, namely his poor temperament, carelessness, curiosity and pride, close examination of the text reveals that he has many seemingly flawed characteristics that are not only justifiable but in some cases to be expected. One might expect that a quick and even murderous temper would be considered a serious impediment to Oedipus. However, he is quite justified in his rage against Creon and Tiresias, and he has good reasons to suspect them of plotting against him. From the view point of Oedipus, he has just discovered that the antecedent king Laius was savagely murdered along with the members of his entourage. Furthermore the murder has yet to be solved many years later, and the gods have placed a plague on his city until the murderer(s) is apprehended and punished. After learning of the death of Laius, Oedipus concludes that the murderer is "a thief, so daring, so wild, he'd kill a king? [It's] impossible, unless conspirators paid him off in Thebes" (140-142). Creon concurs that this thought had also crossed his mind. So with this evidence, it is easy to see why Oedipus is distrustful of his own peers. Maybe the actual killing of Laius and his four servants is an extreme display of Oedipus' murderous temperament. While it may seem a bit extreme in hindsight, at the time of the incident his actions are totally justifiable. Oedipus describes the incident as thus: as he was"making [his] way toward this triple crossroad [he] began to see a herald, then a brace of colts drawing a wagon, and mounted on the bench . . . a man, just as [Jocasta] described [Laius], coming face-to-face, and the one in the lead and the old man himself [was] about to thrust [him] off the road-brute force - and the one shouldering [him] aside, the driver, [he] struck [him] in anger - and the old man, watching [Oedipus] coming up along his wheels - he brings down his prod, two prongs straight at [his] head"(884-893).
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Attention Climbing Hold Consumers The climbing hold industry can be a complicated world. There are so many different companies that make a lot of the same products. In this paper it will be discussed what a consumer can look for in a website to determine if the climbing hold company would be the right one for them. Three companies of different sizes were researched when doing this comparison. The first company that will be looked at is Edge Climbing Walls System. This is a real small company based out of Canada. They are a company that has little direct effect on the market, but many other companies like it as whole are having a large impact on the market. The second company that will be discussed is a company that is on its way up in the industry. They have been in business for a few years but seem to be having a large share of the market. Morganic holds is an Iowa based company, believe it or not, that got its start in a dingy garage in Nevada, Iowa. The last one is Nicros. Nicros is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest manufacture and distributor of climbing holds. They have been in business for many years and distribute holds globally. When looking at Edge Walls website it can be seen as a small company. The website is only one page. There are also very little links to other of there own pages. When first entering the site, the name of the company is not on the top of the page for easy viewing. Displaying the company name at the top of a webpage would be a lot more useful. When scrolling down the page it next list the uniqueness of there company. They discuss why they feel that they have a good product and whose opinion that might be. Next part of the page climbing hold can be seen. When scrolling down more holds appear. On the page the holds are displayed in a format that can be deceiving to the eye. When scrolling down the holds become a blur of color.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
To understand the American dream itÃ¢â¬â¢s easiest to look back in history at how great historical movements created and shaped the American dream idea. For starters a long time ago around the 30Ã¢â¬â¢s, James Truslow Adams, a popular historian, was putting the final touches on the preface to his latest book. It was an interesting time in the life of our nation. Though the crash of 1929 had signaled the beginning of the Great Depression that was to be endured for years to come, there was also a spirit of progress, of possibility.On the day Adams was finishing his manuscript, President Herbert turned on the lights of the newly opened Empire State Building. High hopes amid hard times: the moment matched Adams' thesis in his book, Ã¢â¬Å"The Epic of AmericaÃ¢â¬ (Meacham 1-4). A history of the nation that was to spread a term not yet in the general lingo in those last years of the reigns of Harding, Coolidge and Hoover. Adams' subject, he wrote, was Ã¢â¬Å"that American dream of a better, richer, and happier life for all our citizens of every rank which is the greatest contribution we have as yet made to the thought and welfare of the world. , (Meacham 1-4). It was not a new thing, this abiding belief that tomorrow would be better than today. Ã¢â¬Å"That dream or hopeÃ¢â¬ (Meacham 1-4). There is no single definition of the American Dream. Different people in the US have a different perception of the idea of American Dream. The history of American Civil War helps people understand the two different views regarding the American Dream. All thirteen colonies of the pre-independence era fought together against the British forces. By the end of the American Revolution however, things had changed.The southern colonies had different views which didn't match with those of the northern states. The northern states were against the tradition of slavery and wanted a federal government to rule the nation. They also favored the growth of industries in America. Southern states on the other hand, wanted a sovereign state for them; they also supported the system of slavery which provided them with cheap labor. Interests of these states lied more in the area of agricultural development as against industrial growth. These clashes and differences in opinions eventually culminated into the Civil War.Today, many Americans have lost their faith in the idea of the American Dream. Again John MullerÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas from Ã¢â¬Å"Capitalism, Peace, and the Historical Movement of IdeasÃ¢â¬ , talks about a great point about the US Government. Ã¢â¬Å"Imperialist policies of the US Government more than the economic crisis are responsible for the occurrence of this situation. Interestingly, the efforts of USA to establish superiority over other countries were perceived as a part of the American Dream by manyÃ¢â¬ (Mueller 169-184). James Field JR. explains the history of war from his book Ã¢â¬Å"History of United States Naval Operations: KoreaÃ¢â¬ .After the for mation of Canada, there was no territory left in North America for the US to expand. Thus, the US turned to the east and supported South Korea against North Korea in its effort to weaken China's influence in the region. After helping South Korea in regaining its territory from North Korea, the US decided to invade North Korea. Chinese authorities warned them against taking any such steps. However, the tensions between these countries rose and eventually the Korean War broke out. A 200,000 strong Chinese army attacked the UN (United Nations) forces which supported the US.Fearing the intervention of USSR, the UN forces retreated back to the south. James Field JR. goes on to conclude Ã¢â¬Å"The reason behind citing these instances is that, in the process of asserting itself as a superpower, America went so far as to suppress the weaker nations. The imperialistic policies of this country have therefore, acted against the very essence of the American Dream i. e. Liberty/freedom. In order for the American Dream to exist and thrive, the US should not only strengthen its economy, but also act as a responsible nation. Ã¢â¬ This is why the American Dream has and never will be feasible.The Idea of the American Dream has become so prevalent in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s motto and goals that it is literally ruining people lives. People line up at the proverbial starting line and originate a pissing contest in an attempt to attain degrees, cars and houses at an unreasonable debt, get jobs that we loathe, and max out our credit cards along the way. In the midst of this survival battle, people are keeping their eyes toward what they were all told about attaining the Ã¢â¬Å"dreamÃ¢â¬ that includes a home, family, and acquiring as many things as we can.So why is the American dream so important to everyone if there is no such thing as it? The first myth that America obtains as a nation is that anybody can succeed with hard work. For everyone to succeed with hard work, that would requi re equality of opportunity, which does not exist because opportunity differs based on class and status. The American dream justifies inequality based on social class by your position in class as a fair reflection of what you deserve. Justifying inequality based on ascribed status attributes inequality to a personal trial or defiance in the minority group.James Tueslow Adams states that the American Dream is a dream of a land in which Ã¢â¬Å"life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. Ã¢â¬ Too many of us have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.The United States has always been considered a land of equ al opportunities. People from all over the world have migrated to the US, mainly in search of employment and freedom of religion. However, there are many factors responsible for making America a sought-after destination in order to lead a prosperous life. The United States is a nation where the Ã¢â¬Ëindividual', rather than collective population attains Ã¢â¬Ëcenter-stageÃ¢â¬â¢ in the process of devising policies, making changes, taking up developmental initiatives, etc. Alperovitz, and Thomas 18-23) The youth from the Third World nations have always found USA to be attractive; for them, the socioeconomic conditions back home are in contrast with those found in America. The freedom which can be experienced in America is nowhere to be found. However, there is also a darker side to the American society which needs to be understood. The American Dream has been flawed by social evils like slavery, racism and recently by the grand policies of its government.John Mueller author of Ã¢ â¬Å"Captialism, Peace, and the Histroical Movement of IdeasÃ¢â¬ writes that, the promissory note of Ã¢â¬Ëall men are created equal' in the Declaration of Independence was rendered meaningless when Negroes were used as slaves (Mueller 169-184). Just like any other nation, America too has its limitations. In order for the American Dream to exist, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a necessity to eliminate these social evils prevalent in the American society. The second myth for the American Dream to exist is that free capitalism is the growing achievement of our democracy. For example Fair employment.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The implementation of a telecommunications project is an intricate process that requires the input of a variety of separate units. When an organization or any institution decides to put in place an Information Technology system, it must follow a systematic procedure that begins with the determination of the fact whether the project is necessary, whether it is economically viable, how it is going to operate and be maintained and finally the interface that must be put in place to assist its users and clients.That is why there are several departments in charge. The Planning Department plays the role of qualitatively analyzing a telecommunications project. After the need for the project has been identified, it is the planning department that deliberates on the best implementation approach. There needs to be linear analysis so that the costs of project implementation can be optimized, and to ensure that the final system put in place serves the function which it was intended to; which is i ncreasing the efficiency of operations.The development department is in charge of the actual project implementation. This is usually a technical department comprised of engineers and information scientists. It is in charge of laying the actual physical infrastructure and all the other support components. The Operations department is involved with making sure that the system already put in place by the development group is functioning optimally at all times.This requires constant maintenance and upgrading to remain in phase with advances in technology. Administrative services ensures that the IT project meets required standards of privacy or any other compatibility issues that are recommended depending on the type and application of the system. This department works in close collaboration with the help desk. The help desk on its part handles any queries which may arise from users of the telecommunications system.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
* RPBRL has been in operations for the last 20 years and known as one of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s leading manufacturers and exporters. * RPBRL is a Government approved and ISO 9001:2000, HACCP Certified Company. * RPBRL is supplying Basmati Rice to clients in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Yemen, Bahrain, Doha, Dubai, Cyprus, South Africa, Switzerland, Germany, France, Mauritius, etc. * It have 250 employees in all offices and representatives in 19 countries. * It is one of the successful organizations in the Agro field. * For more than 20 years Chairman Sh. R P Singhal has been actively involved in manufacturing and exporting agricultural products to several markets. VISION: To support sustainable development of villagers, empowerment of women and children and creating employment for the poor farmers. Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) Established:1962 Type: Public Director:Prof. Yogesh Chawla Location:Chandigarh, India PGIMER is a renowned medical and research institution of Asia.It is recognized for its education, medical research and training facilities as well as for its graduates. Himachal Pradesh University : HPU is a public non-profit university located nearly 5 km away from the town of Summer Hill, in the vicinity of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study. It is wholly financed by the Government of Himachal Pradesh and the University Grants Commission, New Delhi. Established:1970 Type: Public Chancellor:Urmila Singh Location:Summer Hill, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India Affiliations:UGC, NAAC, AIU Dharohar Haryana Museum: It is a centre of Haryanavi Folk Culture and Heritage of Haryana. It was inaugurated by Ch. Ranbir Singh on 28th April 2006 in the presence of Ch. Bhupinder Singh Hooda, Chief Minister, Haryana. More than 3000 rare and antique artifacts available at Dharohar. It facilitate the Research Scholars, for the research in the field of folk culture, heritage, literature, architecture, music, traditions, customs, archaeology, education, economics, history, political science, and public administration. Daily Ajit Daily Ajit is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest selling Punjabi language newspaper. The newspaper is owned by Hamdard family who are Sainis. The newspaper was founded in 1942 in Urdu language when the late Sadhu Singh Hamdard became its first editor. Veteran journalist and ex-Rajya Sabha member, Dr. Barjinder Singh Hamdard, is the current Editor-in-Chief of this newspaper. History At the time of Independence, Himachal was formed as a Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ class State by merger of 33 hilly States of North-Western Himalayas on 15th April, 1948. Passenger and goods services were nationalized in the Pradesh in July, 1949. During the year 1958, a Corporation, Ã¢â¬Å"Mandi-Kullu Road Transport CorporationÃ¢â¬ was floated jointly by the Govt. of Punjab, Himachal and Railways under the Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950 basically to operate on the joint routes in the States of Punjab and Himachal. With the re-organization of Punjab State in 1966, few hilly areas of Punjab were merged in Himachal and operational areas of Mandi-Kullu Road Transport Corporation came entirely in the expanded State of Himachal. On 02.10.1974, Himachal Govt. Transport was merged with Mandi-Kullu Road Transport Corporation and was renamed what even today is known as Himachal Road Transport Corporation. Growth After the formation of Himachal on 15th July, 1948 the network of roads had received top-most priority of the Government. At present the road network is widely spread in Himachal. In 1974 total routes operated by HRTC were 379 which have grown to 2119 in March 2010 and the fleet strength has grown from 733 to 2005 in March 2010. Bus remains the sole mode of passenger transportation in the state as railways have a negligible presence in the State. The narrow gauge lines connecting Pathankot with Jogindernagar and Kalka with Shimla are so slow moving that a very small percentage of traffic is carried by them at present; thereby leaving the onus of carrying the passenger traffic on to bus transport. Open Access land Under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 (CROW), the public can walk freely on mapped areas of mountain, moor, heath, downland and registered common land without having to stick to paths. People across England now have approximately 865,000 hectares of land across which they can walk, ramble, run, explore, climb and watch wildlife as they are given the freedom to access land, without having to stay on paths. The new rights, for which people have been campaigning for over 100 years, came into effect across all of England on 31 October 2005.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Strategy in Global Context January 29 2010 Submitted To: Mr. Nirmaalya B Biswas Submitted By: Jaskaran Singh Apoorva Veeksha Rai Robin Gupta ` ? Table of Contents Executive Summary3 Introduction4 External Environment5 Internal Assessment6 Organizational Purpose8 Strategy Analysis and Choice9 Current Strategy11 Conclusion11 Bibliography12 Annexure-113 EFE Matrix13 Annexure-214 Per capita income14 Annexure-315 IFE Matrix15 Annexure-416 The Internal Ã¢â¬â External (IE) Matrix16 Annexure-517 The Grand Strategy Matrix17 Annexure-618 QSPM18 ? Executive Summary McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is a signature restaurant chain serving 58 million customers each day all over the world through its 31000 restaurants in 119 countries. This report views the various internal and external factors affecting the McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s prior to that the report gives a brief introduction about McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, its evolution and the way it entered the Indian market. Evaluation of the response McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is giving to the internal and external factors has been calculated through the Internal Factor Evaluation matrix and External Factor Evaluation matrix. We have used the I/E matrix and the Grand strategy matrix to formulate strategies. We formulated two possible strategies i. i. expansion in the market and product development. The strategies that we formulated using the above stated matrices have been evaluated by using the Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix to know which strategy is more viable. Furthermore, the report provides an insight into the organizational purpose of the McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. Current strategies and recommendations include the analysis of the strategies that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is using to hold and maintain its competitive advantage. Introduction McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is the largest burger fast food chain which has its operations in 119 countries. It serves around 58 million customers every day through its more than 31,000 restaurants (McDonald's, 2009). McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s was started by two brothers Dick and Mac McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in the year 1940. Ray Kroc became the first franchisee as he opened a restaurant in Chicago. Restaurant became so popular among the masses that in just four years the number of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurants reached 100. QSCV i. e. Quality, Service, Cleanliness and Value became the motto of the company and the execution of the same is one of the primary reasons why McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is what it is today. In 1961, Ray Kroc payed $2. 7 million to Dick and Mac McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and acquired all the rights reserved of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s was growing at such a fast speed that in 1963, 500th restaurant was opened. In 1965, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s went public and in 1967 first restaurant across the borders of USA was opened in Canada and since then McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has never looked back. Presently McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has its restaurants in 119 countries of the world (McDonald's History, 2009). McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s got the approval to enter in the Indian market in the year 1991 itself but it took 5 years to study the market, needs of the people, adjust the menu according to the culture and to build a strong supply chain. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s finally entered India in 1996 as it opened its first restaurant in New Delhi. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is a joint venture in India, which was signed in April 1995 and is managed and owned by Mr. Amit Jatia (MD of Hardcastle Restaurants private Ltd. who heads the operations in South and West India and by Connaught Plaza restaurants Private Ltd. which looks after the operations in North and East India. There are 158 restaurants in the whole country today (About McDonald's, 2009). McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has always believed in thinking global and acting local. Before entering into the Indian market McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s made to changes in its menu as in Indi a beef and pork items cannot be offered because of the religious sentiments of the people so they had to be eliminated from the menu. Thus, making India the first country where McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s does not serve beef and pork in its burgers. External Environment External factors are the factors which do not exist within the realm of business itself and on which business has no control at all. We have used the EFE Matrix to conduct an external strategic Ã¢â¬â management audit (Annexure-1 shows the EFE matrix). The total weighted score of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is 3. 04 this shows that it is performing with regards to the external factors in a very good manner. According to Technopark report in 2009 the food industry in India stood at $13 billion and estimates say that by the end of 2011 the fast food industry alone will grow to $6. 3 billion (Economic Times, 2010). The Technopark report also says that within the organized food service which is growing at a furious pace of 20% per annum the quick service restaurants are the fastest growing. This forms a huge opportunity for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and it is determined to grab that opportunity with both the hands as it is planning to open 180-190 more restaurants in the country by the year 2015 (Financial Express, 2009). McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is determined to expand its market share in the industry which is growing at a fast pace. The other reasons which are triggering this expansion are the high youth population in the country and rise in urbanization and per capita income. These reasons develop the new opportunities for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. Population living in the urban areas has also increased to 28% in 2004 and is expected to be increase by another 12% by year 2025 (Indian Demographic Scenario,2025, 2009). In urban areas the number of dual income households is increasing. Thus females, like their husbands, spend time away from home which has marked the way the females use to mange family meals. People have started opting for food away from home. Per capita income in India is also increasing very rapidly and moreover according to the World Resource Institute report Ã¢â¬ËStructure of poverty in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢ which was published in the 2004 around 53% of the household income in India is spent on food, beverages and around Rs. 35000 crores is spent on eating out annually (Annexure-2 shows the rise in per capita income). Thus, the fast food industry has good prospects ahead. Other key external factor that forms an opportunity for the fast food industry as a whole and also for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is the fact that 30% of the population of the country is the youth which is in the age group of 10-24 years of age who are generally inclined towards the fast foods (Youth in India, 2009). Rising consciousness about the health forms one of the greatest threats for the fast food industry. The trend has been changing towards the organic foods and the quick service restaurants will have to adapt themselves to sustain their market share. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has slowly started to adapt to this change by introducing salads. For the foreign fast food chains like McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, KFC etc. nationalism remains a constant threat for example when in 2005 USA denied a diplomatic visa to the Gujarat Chief Minister Mr. Narendra Modi, various protests were launched by the BJP party activists against the American MNCÃ¢â¬â¢s. Low barriers to entry in the fast food industry is also a potential threat for the players in the market because if the barriers are low and the growth opportunities of the industry are high, new players will be willing to enter into the market and thus increasing the competition. Internal Assessment Internal factors are the factors which exist within the realm of business itself and on which business exercise certain amount of control. We have used the IFE Matrix to conduct an internal strategic Ã¢â¬â management audit (Annexure-3 shows the IFE matrix). The total weighted score of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is 3. 14, which means that it is performing with regards to these factors in an exceedingly well manner. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is a well known and a recognized brand across the globe. This familiarity of the brand among the masses forms one of the biggest strengths for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. Efficient supply chain is one of the other key strengths for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. In India 50,000 crores of food produced gets destroyed because of lack of proper infrastructural facilities of transportation and storage. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had set up an efficient supply chain by investing 450 crores in supply chain management even before opening its first restaurant in India to implement its Quality, Service, Cleanliness and Value principle (About McDonald's, 2009). For any business, employees form the greatest asset and it is even truer in case of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. The proficient work force that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has is one of the key reasons why it is one of the key players in the market today. The ability to provide the order within one minute is one such manifestation of this proficiency. The efficiency of the employees is also increased because of the various training programmes they go through which help them in performing their tasks quickly and in a better way but also enhances their capabilities which help them rise in their careers. Around 40% of the employees in middle management of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in India are the ones who had joined as crew members. Business environment is very dynamic no business can afford to remain static; it has to work continuously towards innovation. Nearly 80% of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurants in India give certain percentage of their profits for research and development activities. This is another important strength for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has its operations in 119 countries; one of the key reasons for the McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is the ability to make itself a part of the community. In India also McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has been a part of various social welfare activities like Ã¢â¬â raising funds for charity on WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Children Day, helping in setting up pulse polio to eliminate polio. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy revolved around customization of the menu to suit the Indian palate. (About McDoanld's, 2009) One of the key weaknesses that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has is that it faces a high attrition ratio as high as 83%, which means that company has to invest money for training of new employees again and again. (Business Standard, 2009) McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s often faces protests from environmentalists for promoting practices harmful to the environment through the disposal of tons of packaging material and through the effects of cattle ranching. Another internal weakness for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is that is yet to capitalize on the trend towards organic food. Even though it has reacted to the changing preferences of the consumers by introducing salads in the menu but it is still to make the most of the opportunity. Organizational Purpose Clearly defined organizational purpose is very important for an organization as it describes the basis for its existence. It works as a directing force on the basis of which every decision is taken. The organizational purpose can be known with the help of three elements which are: 1. Vision . Mission 3. Objective McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s vision is to be the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s best quick service restaurant experience. ([emailÃ protected]'s, 2010) Being the best means offering excellent quality, service, cleanliness and value, so that it makes each customer in every restaurant smile. It has been the execution of the motto of QSC and V i. e. Quality, Service, Value and Cleanliness that has made McDonaldÃ¢â ¬â¢s a success story. It strategizes to attain best value by providing top quality products at reasonable prices. McDonald's mission is to be its customers' favorite place and way to eat. To fulfill this McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has been using the concentration strategy where in it is trying for greater market penetration by attaining high level of efficiency in servicing its customers with a limited product line. Delivery of QSC and V on one hand keeps the customers satisfied and on the other hand also maintains the competitive edge over the competitors. The delivery of QSC and V is accomplished by taking care of every minute detail whether it is the unique cold chain network which makes sure that the customers get fresh products at low cost or the supply chain management which makes sure that customers are offered good quality products. About McDoanld's, 2009) Moreover to keep the customers satisfied McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s continuously updates its menu. Strategy Analysis and Choice In the IFE matrix the total weighted score came out to be 3. 14 and in the EFE matrix the total weighted score was 3. 04. This means that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is responding to the internal and external factors in a good way. We have used I/E matrix to come out with a strategy for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s on the basis of its score in the IFE and EFE matrix (Annexure-4 shows the I/E matrix). The basis f I/E matrix are the total weighted score of the IFE matrix which is represented on X axis and the weighted score of EFE matrix is represented on Y axis. The I/E matrix is divided in three regions which have strategy implication. Quadrants I, II and IV are the regions of grow and build. Firms which position in Quadrant III, V and VII can be managed with hold and maintain strategy where as the organizations positioned in Quadrant VI, VIII and IX can be managed with harvest and divest strategy. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is placed in the I/E matrix it comes in the Quadrant-I because of its score in the IFE and EFE matrix which is 3. 4 and 3. 04 respectively. The business organizations which are positioned in Quadrant I can be best managed through grow and build strategy. The Grand Strategy Matrix is ano ther widely used tool for formulating strategies. A firm can be positioned in the four quadrants on the basis of market growth and competitive position that it holds in the market. When we placed McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in the Grand Strategy Matrix it was positioned in Quadrant I mainly because of its high market share of 18% in the highly fragmented quick service restaurant and also because of rapid growth of the quick service restaurant industry itself. Financial Express, 2009)Thus, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is in a strong strategic position (Annexure-5 shows the Grand strategy matrix). For the firms in Quadrant I market penetration, market development and product development are appropriate strategies. By using the Grand strategy matrix and Internal/External matrix we have come up with two strategies which are expansion in the market i. e. opening more restaurants in the country and the other strategies is product development which is developing the new products and continuously updating the m enu in order to pull more customers. Need for product development arises specially because of the rising health consciousness among the people particularly in the educated class. To identify which strategy is more feasible we have used the Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix popularly known as QSPM. QSPM is a strategic management tool to evaluate which of the possible strategies is better for the business organization. In QSPM weights and attractive scores are given to each factor according to the amount of effect it can have on each strategy and then the product of weight and attractive score is calculated. The product for whichever strategy is greater is selected. We used two strategies expansion in the market and product development, the total attractive score for expansion in the market is 3. 37 and for product development is 2. 60. Thus, opening more restaurants is a more viable strategy than product development. Currently McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has 157 restaurants all over India, majority of these are in the metropolitan cities or in larger cities like Chandigarh, Kanpur, Jaipur so it has very less or limited presence in smaller cities. So, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s should target these cities as they form a large potential market for it. With the per capita income on rise, high youth population in the country and increasing urbanization the smaller cities can prove promising markets for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. If we look at the current plans of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s it becomes clear that they have spotted this opportunity as they are planning to open 180 restaurants by the year 2015 majority of these restaurants will be opened in smaller cities. Retail initiatives are being taken up by petroleum companies like Bharat Petroleum Corporation. Financial Express, 2009) McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s can capitalize on this trend and can set up more outlets near the petrol stations on the highways and can thus increase its presence. Current Strategy McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is currently focusing on expanding its base in the Indian market. By the year 2015 McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is planning to start around 180 more restaurants, majority of which will be opened in T ier II cities where McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has very limited presence. (financialexpress, 2009) So, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is trying to penetrate very deep into the Indian market. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is also trying to come up with new products so as to satisfy its customers. Nearly 80% of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurants in India give certain percentage of their profits for research and development activities which helps McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in coming up with new products and efficient service. When McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s entered the Indian market it had to re-engineer its menu and since then it has included several products especially for the Indian customers as McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s believes in thinking global but acting local. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s should continue with its strategy of expanding its base into the Indian market as still there are lot of untapped regional markets in the country especially in the Eastern India where it has less presence as compared to the other parts of the country. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s should also concentrate on the smaller cities as large amount of population (nearly 177 million people) lives in smaller cities. So there is a huge market potential for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in Tier II and III cities. (Population in small cities, 2010) Conclusion The Indian Quick Service Restaurant industry is growing at a very fast pace. Per capita income, urbanization and youth population is also increasing in India. So India is a very potential and attractive market for the quick service restaurants. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s should make the most of the opportunity and should penetrate deep into the market by increasing the number of restaurants in India. It should concentrate on increasing its base in the smaller cities which can form potential markets for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. References About McDonald's. (2009). Retrieved 2009, from mcdonaldsindia. com: http://www. mcdonaldsindia. com/aboutus. html Brief history of McDonald's. (2009). Retrieved December 22, 2009, from mcspotlight. org: http://www. mcspotlight. org/company/company_history. html Business Standard. (2009). Retrieved January 2010, from business-standard. com: http://www. business-standard. com/india/storypage. php? autono=290494. Economic Times. (2010). Retrieved January 2010, from economictimes. indiatimes. com: http://economictimes. indiatimes. com/News/articlelist/1715249553. cms Financial Express. (2009). Retrieved 2009, from financialexpress. com: http://www. financialexpress. com/news/mcdonalds-india-to-open-180190-more-restaurants-by-2015/466279/ Financial Express. 2009, June). Retrieved January 2010, from financialexpress. com: http://www. financialexpress. com/news/mcdonalds-to-invest-rs-400-cr-in-india/321481/ Financial Express. (2009). Retrieved January 2010, from financialexpress. com: http://www. financialexpress. com/news/bpcl-plans-to-grow-in-retail-initiative/101536/ financialexpress. (2009). Retrieved 2009, from financialexpress. com: 3. http://www. financialexpress. com/news/mcdonalds-india-to-open-180190-more-restaurants-by-2015/466279/ McDonald's. (2009). Retrieved January 2010, from aboutmcdonalds. com: http://aboutmcdonalds. om/mcd/our_company. html McDonald's History. (2009). Retrieved January 2010, from aboutmcdonalds. com: http://aboutmcdonalds. com/mcd/our_company/mcd_history. html Population in small cities. (2010). Retrieved January 2010, from infochangeindia. org: infochangeindia. org/Ã¢â¬ ¦ India/Cityscapes/Slumdogs-and-small-towns. html [emailÃ protected]'s. (2010). Retrieved 2010, from mcdonaldsindia. com: http://www. mcdonaldsindia. com/workat. html Youth in India. (2009). Retrieved 2010, from www. popcouncil. org: http://www. popcouncil. org/projects/TA_IndiaYouthSituationNeeds. html Annexure-1 EFE Matrix S. No. Key External FactorsWeightageRankWeighted Score 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. Opportunities Increasing urbanization High youth population Rise in per capita income Indian quick service industry expected to be around $6. 3 billion High proportion of household income spent on food and beverages. Threats Rising health consciousness Anti American sentiments Low barriers for entry 0. 10 0. 15 0. 10 0. 15 0. 10 0. 10 0. 10 0. 20 1. 00 4 3 3 4 3 4 2 2 0. 40 0. 45 0. 30 0. 60 0. 30 0. 40 0. 20 0. 40 3. 04 Annexure-2 Per capita income Annexure-3 IFE Matrix S. No. Key Internal FactorsWeightageRankWeighted Score 1. . 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. Strengths High brand awareness Efficient supply chain Community involvement Efficient workforce World class training programmes Investment in research and development Quality of food Customization of menu Weaknesses High employee turnover Less variety Environmental issues Yet to capitalize on trend towards organic food 0. 10 0. 10 0. 05 0. 10 0. 09 0. 10 0. 10 0. 08 0. 10 0. 08 0. 05 0. 05 1. 0 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 3 2 1 0. 40 0. 40 0. 15 0. 30 0. 36 0. 40 0. 30 0. 24 0. 20 0. 24 0. 10 0. 05 3. 14 Annexure-4 The Internal Ã¢â¬â External (IE) Matrix McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Strong(3. 0 Ã¢â¬â 4. ) Average (2. 0 Ã¢â¬â 2. 99)Weak (1. 0 Ã¢â¬â 1. 99) High (3. 0 Ã¢â¬â 4. 0) Medium (2. 0 Ã¢â¬â 2. 99) Low (1. 0 Ã¢â¬â 1. 99) Annexure-5 The Grand Strategy Matrix Annexure-6 QSPM Expansion in the marketProduct Development Key FactorsWeightAS TAS ASTAS Opportunities Increasing urbanization0. 1040. 4010. 10 High youth population0. 1540. 6010. 15 Rise in per capita income0. 10Ã¢â¬â- Indian quick service industry expected to be around $6. 3 billion by 20110. 1530. 4520. 30 High proportion of household income spent on food and beverages0. 1030. 3020. 20 Threats Rising health consciousness0. 1020. 2040. 40 Anti-American sentiments0. 0Ã¢â¬â- Low barriers to entry0. 20Ã¢â¬â- 1. 00 Strengths High brand awareness0. 1020. 2010. 10 Efficient supply chain0. 1030. 3020. 20 Community involvement0. 05Ã¢â¬â- Efficient workforce0. 1030. 3020. 20 World class training programmes0. 0920. 1810. 09 Investment in research and development0. 10Ã¢â¬â- Quality of food0. 1020. 2030. 30 Customization of menu0. 0820. 1640. 32 Weaknesses High employee turnover0. 10Ã¢â¬â- Less variety0. 0810. 0830. 24 Environmental issues0. 05Ã¢â¬â- Yet to capitalize on the trend towards organic food0. 05Ã¢â¬â- 1. 00 Total Attractive Score 3. 37 2. 60