Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Not as Easy as 1,2,3 Essay

People, Work & Organizations- MGMT20124 Assessment 1- Report reason Study Not as Easy as 1, 2, 3 content Contents2 Executive Summary4 1- Introduction5 1. 1 Background to the report5 1. 2 kitchen stove5 1. 3 Aims 6 2- intelligence7 2. 1 Organizational Justice7 2. 2 experience errors 8 2. 3 Stress8 2. 4 Exit-Voice- devotion-Neglect model8 2. 5 Team cash in champions chips 9 2. 6 Motivation9 3- Literature brush up10 3. 1 Organizational Justice10 3. 2 Mas down(p)s inevitably hierarchy speculation12 3. 3 hope theory14 4- Solutions and suggestions18 4.1 Organisational Justice 18 4. 2 Stress 19 4. 3 Improving feedback process21 5- Conclusion22 References24 Executive Summary There atomic number 18 three purposes for this report. It attempts to indentify the problems in the trip study Not as Easy as 1, 2, 3. fitly, it discusses active six main problems in root principle consulting mansion that discombobulate shun impact on the placement effectiveness and the productivity of the objectives. These problems be graduation exercise principle consulting ecesis failed in impo take ond the governingal jurist.Next one is the perception errors of Janet, the client theater director and military man vision manager. The terce problem is George was forced in the try on situation and Georges dis gladness ab go forth dividing line and bailiwick behaviors which caused to the elapse- section- homage-neglect actions is the problem number four. The fifth is group solve milieu, processes and the run problem is alphabet consulting failed to utilize the motivation procedures in expect its staffs. In addition, it also mentions roughly the theories which cogitate to each problem.The second aim of this report is to explain the literary productions review of round theories that be touchd to the case studys problems and solutions. Particularly, the brass instrument motivation justice theory, Maslows hierarchy necessarily theory and the antepa st theory. Lastly, this report intends to discuss nearly the solutions and suggestions in relation to the cases problems lots(prenominal) as, baffle ordered organisational justice organisation, the methods to relief stress, and devour probably feedback processes system. 1- Introduction 1. 1 Background to the reportIn fresh years, organisational behaviors argon in truth signifi abidet in every corporation which nominate discombobulate haughty or negative impact on mortals, groups and structures deep down an giving medication for the purpose of applying much(prenominal)(prenominal) knowledge towards improving an organizations effectiveness. It is because in that respect ar m whatever issues need to be experienceed if an organization destinys to be successful in managing nation, and maximize their magnate and capacity. indeed, each organization involve to create a consistent system that volunteer cause its staffs and also try to satisfy their necessarily in a ver to break the productivity of the objectives.One of the motivate systems is organizational justice system which provides the truth or distri more(prenominal)overive, adjective and reciprocal justice in the firm. Further more(prenominal), there atomic number 18 umteen theories discuss about the methods that fuel be well-to-do the employees necessarily such as Maslows needs hierarchy theory and anticipation motivation theory etc. For practice, Khin (2010) states that m either Malaysian companies perspectives about the claim of organizational justice on employees theorize satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. Theyimplemented the questionnaires around 300 employees about the distributive and procedural justice in a lesser to medium firms and the result showed that soulfulnesss were satisfy with their melodic lines, had more committed to the organizations and the organizational justice also provided appropriate seduceing environment that kin dle potentially heaps benefits akin cost associated to employees retentions, influencing positive behaviors among employees, and and then achieve effectiveness and high productivity in the organization. 1. 2 Scope The case study Not as Easy as 1, 2, 3 focuses on several problems in first rudiment consulting firm.George was a new adviser staff in rudiment firm who was employed by ABC because he impressed ABCs tender choice director and Janet, the client manger in the interview time. They state George was exactly furcate of spate they atomic number 18 looking for and auspicate him lead read onto gift system later three months probation. George was assigned in a device team with Daniel, the realize manager and Janet, his duty is writing the report. However, nobody control him how to write the report or told him about the subroutine expectations hence he could non complete his ideas in the report probably at the first group meeting between him, Daniel and Janet.Geor ges manager disappointed about his report, they verbalise we perspective you were a little more extroverted. George was stress and assay to work more hours and put more attacks but had non satisfied his manager when he emailed his report two nights before it was due. Yet, Janet ripped his report to shreds, and told him she needs almostthing more useful. It caused George tangle down and lost his motivation, he came to work late, left(a) early and took long-dated break than usual. He precious to stay in ABC because of the incentive which his manger and humanity resource director foreshadow him that everyone bear get it afterward three months.Neverthe little, at the review meeting Janet and human resource director told him that he could not get onto the indemnity system because he has not performed at they pass judgment. Consequently, George sent out job applications in that night. 1. 3 Aims The purpose of this report are threefold, these include constitute the issues in ABC consulting firm which put one over negative affect to organizational behaviors. Particularly, the six main problems are ABC consulting organization failed in implemented the organizational justice.Next one is the perception errors of Janet, the client manager and human resource director. The third problem is George was forced in the stress situation. some other issue is Georges dissatisfaction about job and work behaviors which caused to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect actions. The fifth is teamwork environment, processes and the last problem is ABC consulting failed to implement the motivation procedures in motivating its staffs. The literature review, explain the theories which are colligate to the case studys problems in order to the motivation and satisfy employees needs.There are three cardinal theories include organizational motivation justice, Maslows hierarchy needs theory, and presentiment theory. Finally, the beginning provides some solutions and suggestions f or the problems in ABC consulting firm such as, cause consistent organizational justice system, the methods to relief stress, and implement probably feedback processes system. 2- Discussion The case study NOT AS EASY AS 1, 2, 3 is facing with some profound problems in the organizational behavior that could shoot negative affect to employees surgerys, motivation, counterproductive behavior, and organizational citizenship etc.Yet, there are several issues in this case study but the author is think on six particular problems in ABC Consulting organization depict as follows 2. 1 Organizational Justice The first issue in ABC consulting social club is the organizational justice. Organizational justice is the study of the concerns about luridness in the workplace which includes the dispersion of resources has to do with distributive justice, and the legality of decision-making procedures has to do with procedural justice (Greenberg 1990).Furthermore, Perceptions of distributive j ustice is one of the reasons employees want to withdraw from the organization (Cohen-Charash Spector 2001). In fact, ABC consulting had failed to maintain the forthrightness in the workplace which included the procedural justice, George is the new staff in ABC consulting but he did not get each instruction or support to do the first client report. Besides, the distributive justice, the human resource director said that George will be eligible to get onto the gift system as same as everyone in the comp eachafter three months probation but at the end of the probation period George could not get onto this bonus system. Consequences, the adversity of fairness in workplace resulted George wanted to word of farewell ABC consulting company, he was sending out the job applications. 2. 2 Perception errors The next problem in ABC consulting company is the perception errors of human resource director and Janet who is George area manager and this error can be explained in the Halo Effect theory. The Halo Effect is a lawsuit of perceptual error where hatful perception of one soulfulnessality distinction influences how they view a someones entire personality (Pollock 2012).The case study pointed out clearly that the human resource director and Georges area manager Janet said he was the exactly sort of person they are looking for because of the impression of George in the interview time, but they seemed to disappointed about George after the first meeting as Janet told him We panorama you were a little more extroverted. The perception error of Janet and human resource director has leaded to unproductive of task and Georges dissatisfaction about his job. 2. 3 StressAnother problem is George was forced in a stress situation. Stress is something or situations that are perceived as challenging or threatening to the public assistance of an mortal. These conditions whitethorn lead to poor work performance, less work productivity (Colligan et al. 2006). George defin itely is facing with the stress due to Janets commented on him George sensed from Janets commented that she was disappointed. Hence, he had to work from 7. 00 Am to 7. 00 Pm in the office and often do extra work at home.Yet, there were not useful points of his report even in the second time, Janet said she hope George has something useful to present on Monday after she read his report. 2. 4 Exit-Voice- loyalty-Neglect model The fourth issue is Georges dissatisfaction about job and work behaviours which caused to the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect actions and this type of actions can be set in exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model. EVLN is a template that identifies ways that employees respond to dissatisfaction job (Hirschman 1970). Obviously, George was not satisfied with his job.Firstly, George had emailed the report again to his manger but she had been ripped to shreds. Thus, he felt anger, resentment and was not willing to do anything more on the pouch unless instructed to. Addi tionally, he had some reflected actions to his job dissatisfaction, Such as he wanted exit from ABC consulting firm, he was sending out job applications after the company rejected him to get onto the bonus system. This action showed that George had a low loyalty in ABC consulting organisation low loyalty produced exit with job dissatisfaction.He also engaged in counterproductive behaviours (voice), George said he would only do absolute minimum, nothing more and he did not want to continue in dazzling anyone in the organisation. In last, he had reduced work driving, paid less attention to grapheme and increase absenteeism and lateness (neglect). It can be illustrated that he came to work late, left earlier, and took longer break than usual. 2. 5 Team work The fifth problem, ABC consulting firm had problem in organising a teamwork environment and processes.Teamwork is the cooperative and coordinated effort on the part of two or more people who work together as a team or in the occu py of a common cause, which is normally the tasks set by the company (Salas et al. 2008). Probably, Daniel the project manager and Janet the client manager know that George is new staff in the organisation but they were not helping George as a team member. They did not make up instructions or even ask if George has got any problem with the report and only expected on George will eat up the report more than what he has done. 2. 6 MotivationFinally, ABC consulting failed to implement the motivation procedures in motivating its staffs. Motivation is the forces within a person that impact on an individuals direction, intensity and persistence of intended behaviour (McShane et al. 2013). Particularly, ABC consulting firm was not successful in motivating George. First of all, they failed to make the ability of George and the ability can make a difference in task performance and behaviour. They thought George was a rubbish more extroverted, that is why George could not complete the re port well as they expected.The second is competencies of George it includes knowledge, skills, personality, and self-concept, sets etc. that results in superior performance. People can realise that ABC consulting firm did not implement well in matching Georges competencies with jobs task requirements and even though they did not provide any training for George, it caused an unproductive of George performance and organisational effectiveness. Moreover, the failure of ABC consulting firm in identifying the role perception to George that meaning they did not help George sympathise the job duties assigned to or expected of him.Thus, George could not finish his report as his manager wanted. 3- Literature review The problems in the case study Not as Easy as 1, 2, 3 united with few particular theories in the organisational behaviour which includes the organisational justice theories, motivational theories and anticipation theory of motivation. 3. 1 Organizational Justice The organisat ional justice contains the several(predicate) theories that are distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice, and they all relate to the fairness in organisations.For example, fair payment, equal opportunities for promotion between employees, and personnel office selection procedures etc Distributive justice is conceptualized as the fairness associated with decision outcomes and distribution of resources. An individuals react to actions and decisions of fairness made by organizations every day, and the distributing of outcomes or resources can be tangible (e. g. , pay) or intangible (e. g. , praise). Perceptions of distributive justice can motivate staffs when outcomes are considered to be equally applied (Adams 1965).On the other hand, procedural justice is defined as the fairness of the processes that lead to outcomes. When individuals step the process involves characteristics such as consistency, accuracy, ethicality, and lack of bias then procedural just ice is enhanced or they can have a voice in the process (Leventhal 1980). Additionally, interactional justice refers to the treatment that an individual receives the explanations or news with respect as decisions are made (Bies & Moag 1986). Colquitt (2001) also declares that interactional justice is divided into two components interpersonal and informational justice.Interpersonal justice that means the respect and propriety in people behaviours, besides informational justice related to the fairness of the explanations given in terms of their timeliness, specificity, and truthfulness. Therefore, the fairness is very significant in every organisation because people attitudes and behaviours are affected by the fairness of the managers decisions that can impact job attitudes and work performances and behaviours. Furthermore, Perceptions of justice can also impact many key organizational outcomes such as motivation (Latham & Pinder 2005) and job satisfaction (Al-Zubi 2010).There are som e common outcomes affected by organizational justice include trust, performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviours, counterproductive work behaviours, and absenteeism and so on. Firstly, trust can be built from the employees belief that since current organizational decisions are fair, future organizational decisions will be fair. In addition, a positive relationship between an employees and supervisors can lead to trust in the company (Karriker & Williams 2009).According to (Hubbell & Chory-Assad, 2005 Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001) procedural justice is the strongest related to trust in organisations. Secondly, work performance is also affected by organisational justice. Procedural justice affects performances as a result of its impact on employee attitudes. Distributive justice affects performances when energy and productivity are involved (Cohen-Charash & Spector 2001). Thus, organisations need to make better the organisational j ustice in order to increase the productivities and performances.Karriker & Williams (2009) also states that improving justice perceptions can improve productivity and performance. Thirdly, Job satisfaction and organizational commitment, (Al-Zubi 2010) declared that the greater of employees perceptions of justice result in higher aims of job satisfaction and greater injustice perception will result in press down levels of job satisfaction. Moreover, DeConick 2010 Cohen-Charash & Spector (2001) argues that if employees feel the fairness in procedural justice within the organisation, it will result more commitment to the firm and vice versa.Fourthly, the organizational actions and decisions are perceived as more just, employees are more potential to engage in organisational citizenship behaviours (Karriker & Williams 2009). Fifthly, the Counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs), there are many reasons that explain why organizational justice can affect CWBs. For example, increased judg ments of procedural injustice can lead to employees unwillingness to comply with an organizations rules because the relationship between perceived proceduralinjustice and CWBs could be mediated by perceived normative encroach, the extent to which individuals feel conflict between the norms of their workgroup and the policy of the organization (Cohen-Charash & Spector 2001),. Finally, the Absenteeism and withdrawal of employees due to the perception of organisational justice, such as someone could not get onto a bonus or promotion is an example of a situation in which feelings of injustice whitethorn lead to absenteeism from work without reason. Furthermore, distributive justice perceptions are most potently related to withdrawal in the company (Cohen-Charash & Spector 2001).In addition, there are several motivational theories in the organization which relates to many different aspects. Yet, the author is only focuses on the Maslows needs hierarchy theory and presentiment theory of motivation because these theories have involved in the problems in ABC consulting firm. 3. 2 Maslows needs hierarchy theory Maslows needs hierarchy theory is a motivation theory of needs lay in hierarchy, it use to motivate people of complete their needs from write down to higher.Maslow used the terms physiological, Safety, Belongingness ( jazz), reckon and Self-Actualization needs to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through (McShane et al. 2013). Physiological needs Physiological needs are the physical requirements for people survival in the workplace, if they are not satisfy with these needs, their body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail. Physiological needs of individuals are thought to be the most important they should be met first in order to implement their tasks and function well in the organisations.For example, food, air, water, shelter, etc. Safety needs Every organisation needs to escort that their employees are safe at w ork, with their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individuals gum elastic needs take precedence and dominate behaviours. The safety and security needs comprise personal security, financial security, health and well universe security and Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts such as working violence, natural disaster, job security, economic crisis,resources, morality, health etc. (Maslow 1954). Love and belongingness The company has fulfilled employees physiological and safety needs, they need to motivate their staffs with third level of human needs which is interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness. According to Maslow (1943), people need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among their social groups including small groups (intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants), and large groups (sport teams, professional organisations, clubs).Belongingness and loved are very important because there are many people become susceptib le to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression in the absence of this love or belonging element, Hence organisations should satisfy this type of need in order to motivate its employees. Esteem Every individual needs to feel respected it contains the need to have conceit and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical people want to be judge and valued by others. People are likely engaged in a profession or hobby to gain recognition and these activities give the individual a sense of contribution or value. close to people in the companies have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem and these needs can be exposit in two versions. Maslow (1954) points out two versions of esteem needs a lower version and a higher version. The need of respect from others people is lower version of esteem, such as a status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The need for self-respect is higher version, for example, the person may have a need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom. Self-actualizationThis is the highest level of needs in order to motivate staffs of Maslows hierarchy needs theory. Maslow (1954) contends this level as the desire to accomplish everything that employees can, to become the most that people can be. Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. For example the self-actualization needs are morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving etc. Maslow also states that to discover this level of need, individuals must not only gain the previous needs, but they have to master them.In general, the lower-order of needs (physiological, safety, and love) and the higher-order (self-esteem and self-actualization) of needs are class in Maslows hierarchy of needs is not universal and may different due to the cultures, individual differences and availability of resources in the region or geopolitical entity and country. On the other hand, Maslows hierarchy of needs fails to render a nd expand upon the differences between the intellectual and social needs of those raised in individualistic societies and collectivist societies. 3.3 prediction theory forecast theory is a motivation theory base on the idea that people believe there are relationships between the efforts they put forth at work, the performances they achieve from those efforts, and the rewards they receive from their efforts and performances. In other words, people will be motivated if they believe that more effort will result to full(a) performance and good performance will get the desired rewards (Fred 2011). According to vroom (1964), (Chen Miller 1994) the expectancy theory contains three components as follows ExpectancyExpectancy could be explained as the belief that strong or more effort will lead to better performances. This can be described by the thinking of if individuals work harder, they will make the outcomes better. However, in order to get better results individuals also need to hav e the correct resources available, the skills that are match with the job at hand, and having the necessary support to accomplish the job correctly. instrumentation Instrumentality can be described as the thought that if people perform well, then those people will get the value outcomes.Nevertheless, trust and respect for managers who make decisions on individuals deserve to receive what rewards, and see the transparency in the processes of who gets what rewards is something that help instrumentality is having a clear intellectual of the relationship between performances and the outcomes. Valence Valence means value and refers to beliefs about desired outcomes. There are individuals differences in the level of value associated with any specific outcomes. For instance, the bonus may not motivate employees if some one is motivated by increased status, promotion.Valence can be thought of as the pressure or significance that a individual puts on an expected outcomes. Vroom (1964) alle ges that the force of motivation in an employee can be calculated using the formula Motivation = Valence*Expectancy*Instrumentality Application of Expectancy Theory in the Workplace Organizational Applications Expectancy Leaders need to have an ability to understand expectancy as related to the E-P linkage because it is very useful in the organisations. There are five different components for a manager to keep in understanding concerning this linkage.First, a leader needs to design some challenging tasks for employees because unchallenging tasks can make employees feel boredom, frustration and marginal performance. Challenging objectives allow for self-confidence, education, ability development, training, skills and experience, among other things (Isaac et al. 2001). The next component is a leader must consider their staffs competencies because individuals differ on experience, knowledge, training, skill, and educational level etc.objectives need to be assigned based on the indivi duals level of abilities, if people feel they are not capable to finish the works assigned, the E-P linkage will be weak. A good leader needs to provide the necessary skills to the followers in order for them to be successful (Vroom 1964). Third, managers have to recognize that its employees differ greatly regarding their levels of self-esteem in regards to completing a task. Fourth, leadership need to determine and specify which are possible or impossible outcomes constitute acceptable performances.The leaders and its staffs both need to hap and reach a mutual agreement on the behaviour that represents a successful outcome for each of them. Fifth, leaders need to recognize that use of goods and services of effort for many followers leads to satisfaction on the job (Brown & Peterson 1994). Most of employees want to feel useful, competent, involved and productive. The workplace provides a vehicle to fulfil these needs. A manager that is aware of these different aspects of people p erceptions, as they relate to expectancy, can in effect understand and facilitate the E-P linkage for each of their employees (Isaac et al.2001). Managing these elements effectively can help a leader to strengthen the expectancy of each of their followers. The strengths and Weaknesses of Expectancy Theory Strengths Expectations are influenced by incentives and rewards, with clearly goals set, this will set forth a motivational process that can improve performances. According to Vroom (1964) an individuals motivational force can be equated to the level of expectancy multiplied by the instrumentality multiplied by the valance. If any one of these factors is scored as a zero, then the motivational score will also be zero (Penn state creative activity Campus 2011).This can soft be seen in situations where a people believe the amount of effort put on tasks will not result in the expected rewards, in situations where the level of performances will not yield the desired outcomes or that the rewards will not have the desired value as expected, the individuals motivational level will be zero (Penn State World Campus 2011). On the other hand, when all the components of the equation are high, the motivational force will also be high (Penn State World Campus 2011).In general, by utilizing expectancy theory, companies must understand the importance of demonstrating delay for their employees works, and as a result, their employees will perform stronger, and show more loyalty towards the organizations. Weaknesses The weaknesses of between-subject design can be seen in the distinct of each person places on the effort, performance and value of rewards, because this design is quantitative, the comparisons between people are hard to measure.In addition, the applications of the theory in the organisations, in some companies the rewards some employees receive might not be seen as attractive as many people tilt their idea of desired rewards. What may have been a good incentive at one point in time may no longer hold its value to that individual anymore (Penn State World Campus 2011). Expectancy theory is only focal point on the extrinsic motivational factors and the conscious decisions employees make about their performances. many a(prenominal) managers and staffs are not motivated solely by extrinsic factors, such as a pay check, bonus, or public recognition. Consequences, the concept of instrumentality is found to be ambiguous and difficult to operationalise (Wabba House 1974). Therefore, it is hard for leaders in an organization to really understand what motivates their employees before attempting to utilize the expectancy theory model. 4- Solutions and suggestions 4. 1 Organisational Justice The case study Not as Easy as 1, 2, 3 has shown that ABC consulting firm has the problem with the fairness in the organisation.Hence, in order to improve and protect the fairness in ABC firm, the organisation should design procedures so they can be consistently , clearly applied to all employees and work groups. For example, have a structured performance review process so all workers are reviewed using consistent criteria. Furthermore, they must develop a policy about organisational justice system which includes procedural justice, distributive justice and interactional justice like ABC firm needs to provide training and give instruction about the tasks for all new staffs, or provide tests of applicants knowledge, skills and experiences.Moreover, on the procedural fairness of recruitment processes, the manager and human director should not promise anything cashbox the new staffs have finished their tasks. The state of Queensland (2012) also alleges that appoints or promotes workers based on performance, using valid and reliable selection and recruitment methods. Because if they promise something to the new employees and they could not receive it later, they will feel disappointed.It causes employees want to bestow the organisation and it costs company more to do other recruitments like George who had sent out job applications after he was refused to get onto the bonus system as his manager and human resource director promised him in the interview. Additionally, in order to maintain the relational fairness the manager needs to treat workers with respect, dignity and politeness at all times. George manager, Janet who should comment and solution on his work more polite and respectful, Janet said we thought you were a little more extroverted and the report had been ripped to shreds.Besides, managers have to ensure that commission structures across the organisation and reporting lines within work team are clear. This will help workers know who they are accountable to and where they can go for help with work problems, and Ensure workers have an up to date role or position description, which includes the role purpose, reporting relationships and the key duties expected of them. 4. 2 Stress George was so stressed and he could not concentrate on anything, there was simply too much to do, and he had not much time left to implement his report.Particularly, George was stress due to the way his manager Janet treated him, unclear expectations, urgent deadlines etc. Hence, In order to develop an effective stress concern program in ABC consulting firm, first way is individual intervention. This starts off by monitoring the stressors in the individual, observes what are the reasons of the stress, next is attacking that stressor and try to develop the methods to alleviate them in any way. germinateing social support is vital in individual intervention, being with others to help individual cope has proven to be a very effective way to avoid stress (BMJ group 2013).In addition, harmonize to Lehrer et al. (2007) there are several ways the organization can change that employers and managers can make in order to reduce workplace stress, presented below. Develop work, health and safety program Provide training, ensuring all employees are understand Show that every employee are valued and useful Provide chances for course development Establish a zero-tolerance policy for harassment Clearly identify individual employees roles and duties Consult staffs about scheduling and work rules Make management actions consistent with organ

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