Monday, September 30, 2019
Birth Control Psychological Research Essay
The article written by Edward Pohlman in October of 1966 brought up interesting points in relation to psychologist and birth control. It provided both independent variables and dependent variables that helped to show why individuals decide on contraception, or decide not to use them. He pushed to show why psychologist havenÃ¢â¬â¢t done much research in the area of birth control and their related topics, by suggesting that non-psychologist are the researchers that boast interest in studying the topic because of potential overpopulation problems. I think the decision to treat independent and dependant variables about psychological effects of using birth control is relevant to all people that take part in intercourse and having children because these decisions are critical choices in life that decide whether future children will be able to thrive on our planet, and live without psychological damages from parental neglect. Some variables include, but are not limited to the number of children wanted, contraceptionÃ¢â¬â¢s, and measured personality. (Pohlman, Eugenics Quarterly.). Some psychological factors that were pointed out to be some major independent variables were total family size, motherÃ¢â¬â¢s age at first birth, duration of marriage, spacing between births, sex of the children, inability to have children, adoption and celibacy. (Polhman, Eugenics.). Ã¢â¬Å"Psychologist do not play key roles in whether or not countries engage in extensive use of birth control planning, or to control their population, rather private companies are relied upon to handle technical assistance and procedures.Ã¢â¬ (Journal of Social Issues.). This is the problem that needs to be addressed and accounted for; however, the author doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide evidence or notation of where, who, what, and how the study is taking place. He continues with, psychologists play an important role in contraception because they h ave the intelligence and Ã¢â¬Å"know-howÃ¢â¬ (Pohlman, Edwards.). to intervene with a patients and help the people decide if birth control is something that is an option or not. Once again the author is providing a statement rather than actual facts to lead on his arguments, but the argument is sound. Some studies that psychologist participated in were promoting the idea of contraception to both smaller families and that of larger families. The idea was to provide the idea that contraception wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily a problem and that they had to deal with, rather more of an option. The problem with this particular independent variable is that relationships with one culture could be completely different with relationships with other cultures. Population densities take psychological effects, so studies found that since the world population was a major concern then they would target high populated areas to conduct their research. These studies are important because of the food supply that would rapidly decline as the population increased. (Pohlman, Journal of Social Issues.). The author could have researched a graph and included it in his argument for a more frontal approach to help the reading see the truth in which he is attempting to provide. Psychologists found that the same psychological effects can be played in reverse when giving birth to a child. In a large probability sample of American wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s in 1960, 17% were willing to admit that their latest conception had not really been wanted by both spouses. (Whelpton,Cambell, &Patterson, 1966, Pp.235-239.). As a parent, you have responsibility to your child, but having a psychologist discuss the precautions involved both positive and negatives, can make you question ones desirability and how you feel about having another child or not. According to Edward Pohlman itÃ¢â¬â¢s more profitable for a psychologist to study the effects on psychological depen dent variables such as, contraception and birth planning procedures, births of circumstances in the family, and population characteristics. This is why psychologist wait to conduct their research as opposed to taking the study from the start. Studies have shown that that any psychological factors that could influence anyone in a given culture towards having children, or having more children would not show up for the testing. (The Psychology of Birth Planning.). Psychologist also found that social class or even religious preferences tend to play a key role in decision making time that can be psychological in its self. Ã¢â¬Å"Every form of contraception has psychological effects on the person using them sexually.Ã¢â¬ (Edward Pohlman.). The article didnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide any data on psychological effects sexually, but it can be justified through the research of sterilization, abortion, infanticide, and abstinence. (Whelpton, P. K., Campbell, A. A., & Patterson.). in Edwards research he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide examples. Another form of dependent variable that was acknowledged was the effects of guilt. Guilt has been found to be one of the biggest issues when regarding to religious beliefs, rationalization and other phenomena related instances. (The Psycology of Birth Planning). Once again Edward Pohlman doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide proof to justify his statements; which is disappointing. In conclusion, the author leaves the reader questioning his argument because of the lack of data that he is able to extract from psychological studies. In my opinion, his sources are valid sources; however, to complete his argument that psychologist havenÃ¢â¬â¢t done enough research in the area of birth control and related topics, he needs to dig deeper and find sources that can find a better way to link the psychological factors on birth control and psychologists studies. This will help him complete his argument that without contraception our planet will be doomed do to over population. I also think he needs to find more information on the experiment entirely in its self. The studies took place in small and large populated areas, ok? As the reader, I want detail as to how the study was conducted? How many participants were involved? He gives examples of problems that could potentially be a disadvantage for psychologist. Edward Pohlman was correct that not enough studies are being conducted by psychologist. His argument is sound and on point.